Tic is an involuntary, repeated, rapid contraction of the muscle or muscle group. This phenomenon is a frequent, manifestations of nervous tic experienced themselves or observed it, almost all the people.
The most common is a nervous tic eyes, but few people know that a tic could look like and how complex movements and like shouting the words, including obscene and as uttering strange sounds. The disease can occur at any age, a child's nervous tic occurs 10 times more frequently than in adults.
Tics may be primary, that is arising as a separate disorder of the nervous system, and secondary, were the result of brain disease. Also highlights a group of hereditary nervous tics.
- Primary or psychogenic tics. Usually a nervous tic in the child appears between the ages of five to seven years, which have child psychologists considered the most vulnerable in terms of emotional impact. The most common cause of a nervous tic in this case - psycho-emotional trauma, both acute (single stress as a result of, for example, in the presence of a family quarrel) and chronic (a sense of abandonment, dislike mother, excessive demands on the child). In some cases, the cause of a nervous tic and remains unclear.
- Secondary or symptomatic tics. Develop as a result of injury, including generic, tumor or metabolic disorders of the brain in various diseases, as one of the symptoms. And in this case, the cause tick may be not only a brain disease or nervous system, and that any transferred diseases, caused even a short period of cerebral hypoxia, such as a viral infection. The second group of diseases that can cause a nervous tic, these are diseases in which the movement, which later became teak, was initially forced a reflex and secure. For example, chronic tonsillitis child was forced to swallow often. After removal of the tonsils tonsillitis no longer occurs, and the habit of swallowing and became entrenched in the child nervous tic.
- Tourette's syndrome. It employs a genetic mechanism for the transfer of a nervous tic. In this case, the disease is common in family members, although not necessarily in the same form. For example, the mother can be a nervous tic eyes, and her son jerking his head, or a repetition of the same words.
Types of nervous tics
Nervous tic may be movement of a group of muscles, and then talk about the local or limited nervous tics or movements that involve multiple muscle groups, then it is called a generalized nervous tic.
Also, tics can be simple, in this case, the movement consists of a single element, such as eye muscle twitching with nervous tick eye or complex, consisting of a group of co-ordinated, but uncontrolled movements, such as jumping.
According to its manifestations tics are divided into three groups:
- Mimic, or facial. In this kind of nervous tics involve mainly facial muscles. These ticks are nervous tic of the eye (say eye "twitches"), frequent blinking, winking, lip movements, and other reduction of facial muscles.
- The vocal or voice. This is a group of complex nervous tics, during which the patient says or some abrupt sounds like pohryukivany, groans et al., Or words and even phrases. This phrase can be spoken by him or repeated for the other end of phrases (echolalia), or even shouting expletives.
- Tics of the limbs. Pritoptyvaniya, bouncing, clapping hands, etc. belong to this species.
Symptoms of tick
The appearance of symptoms of nervous tic notice immediately. The patient, especially when it comes to a child's nervous tic, long aware of this movement, usually strange behavior paying attention. As already stated above, tic can take many forms, but integrates all these movements one thing - they can not be controlled. Patients can anticipate the appearance tick attack, and sometimes even an effort of will to suppress it, but not for long. Usually a nervous tic is stronger in a state of heightened arousal or exhaustion, but in rare cases, on the contrary, can be especially pronounced during periods of calm and relaxation.
Tic does not lead to a decrease in intelligence, to the deterioration of the nervous system, but it can significantly affect the reduction of mental and emotional condition of the patient, especially if the disease is attention, sharp condemnation or ridicule from the environment. Particularly sensitive to the children, so the child's tics may be exacerbated in noisy environments or when large crowds.
Diagnosis of tick
The diagnosis of a nervous tic puts neurologist, after the passage of neurological and psychiatric examination. The main purpose of the survey in this case - an exception diseases with organic brain lesions, such as tumors and mental disorders. The conclusion of the expert is necessary also because often some form of nervous tics, especially vocal, taken for undisciplined behavior. This causes a sharply negative attitude of others, in turn, put pressure on the patient, causing symptoms aggravated by a nervous tic.
Typically, a special treat nervous tic is required. Thus, the child nervous tic that caused emotional problems, is held with the normalization of psycho-emotional atmosphere in the family and the environment. In advanced cases, the therapy has a good effect, while elaborating the problems and playful child learns to cope with stress. Moreover, in this case, psychotherapeutic counseling is extremely recommended and the child's parents. Typically, the symptoms of a nervous tic in a child caused by psychological reasons, or of undetermined origin, pass the time of puberty.
For the normalization of the suppressed, overexcited or otherwise disturbed emotional background may be used a mild sedative (calming) drugs, medication or vegetable origin (tincture of Leonurus, valerian, and others.), But not for a long time. The use of potent agents for the treatment of nervous tics is not recommended, as they cause a large number of side effects, much higher than the therapeutic effect of the drug.
Treatment of nervous tics, which are symptoms of other diseases is the treatment of the underlying disease.
With simple localized nerve in adult ticks persistent nature, such as nervous tic eye can be used neurotoxic effects of drugs that cause the blockade of nerve impulses to the muscle motor. Most often this purpose use Botox injections.