General characteristics of the disease
Testicular cancer - one of the most rare pathologies. In the overall statistics of cancer signs of testicular cancer are diagnosed no more than 2% of patients. This disease is very aggressive: in men younger than 35 years of testicular cancer - one of the most common causes early death of cancer etiology.
In the third case signs of testicular cancer diagnosed in male children. In 90% of cases the cause of testicular cancer in boys younger than 3 years of becoming ozlakachestvlenie benign tumor - teratoma. It arises from the developmental disorder prenatal period.
The causes of testicular cancer in adult men include scrotal trauma, pathology of the endocrine system, the effects of radiation, and cryptorchidism. This congenital anomaly associated with undescended testis into the scrotum, without timely treatment also threatens to turn into cancer of the testicles.
Symptoms of testicular cancer 5 times more common in men of European descent. The highest incidence of testicular cancer diagnosed today locked in Scandinavia and Germany, the lowest - in the Asian countries and countries of the African continent.
Symptoms of testicular cancer
A reliable symptom of testicular cancer - the appearance of the nodule on the background of the simultaneous sealing of tissue and increase body. The scrotum for testicular cancer is also increased in size and swells. With the growth of tumors in men there is a pain to the area of the testicle and spermatic cord.
A symptom of testicular cancer with retroperitoneal lymph nodes is abdominal pain. With further germination of the tumor observed a massive increase in the lymph nodes, back pain, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, weakness. Symptoms of testicular cancer with dropsy of testicular membranes are often similar to clinical epididimoorhita - combines an inflammation of the testicles and appendages. When the hormonal activity of the tumor testicular cancer causes changes of secondary sexual characteristics: gynecomastia (breast enlargement), precocious puberty, hirsutism (hairiness early) in boys.
Diagnosis of testicular cancer
The first step in the diagnosis of testicular cancer - both testicles palpation patient. After that the feeling of inguinal lymph nodes, as well as examination of the breast to avoid gynecomastia.
The next step in the diagnosis of testicular cancer - use of transillumination (candling tsitoskopom scrotum). This diagnostic method to distinguish a cyst filled with fluid from the dense body of a benign tumor or testicular cancer. The laboratory methods for the detection of symptoms of testicular cancer include clinical, immunochemical and biochemical analyzes of blood and urine.
The final diagnosis of "testicular cancer" is set based on the results of a biopsy of testicular tissue. Biopsy under a microscope to determine the type of tumor and predict the anticipated rate of testicular cancer.
The abdominal cavity of a patient with symptoms of testicular cancer is examined using ultrasound. Chest X-ray, MRI and CT scans are conducted to recognize the degree of metastatic testicular cancer.
The stages of testicular cancer
For stage I testicular cancer is characterized by tumor location within the body and the absence of metastases.
The sign of testicular cancer stage II - the presence of tumor metastases in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes.
In the III and IV stages of testicular cancer have already metastasized to distant lymph nodes.
No less popular in medical circles clinical TNM-classification of testicular cancer and other cancers. "T" from 1 to 4, characterized by the tumor itself, «N» describes the status of regional lymph nodes, "M" to coefficient "0" denotes the absence of distant metastases, and M1 - presence of distant metastases.
Treatment of testicular cancer
Treatment of testicular cancer is complex. It is to remove the tumor foci in the preventive and curative resection of the lymph nodes, as well as systemic chemotherapeutic effect on abnormal cells.
Surgical treatment of testicular cancer involves the complete removal of the affected organ, along with an appendage - orchiectomy or gemikastratsiyu. When detected testicular cancer metastases in the peritoneum space retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy performed well - the removal of nearby lymph nodes, and revision of all the abdominal organs.
After surgery recovery period and the patient with testicular cancer directed to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for testicular cancer - system. It is carried out by intravenous injection or tablets and affects the entire body. But as the cancer cells or testicular tumors at other sites have the highest metabolic rate in the first place they are destroyed.
Exposure to radiation in the treatment of testicular cancer is a type of local therapies. For large size tumor stage III-IV testicular cancer, it can be used in the preoperative stage. After surgery, radiation therapy for testicular cancer used to fight metastases in lymph nodes and bone.