Tachycardia - a condition in which the heart rate above 90 beats per minute. Tachycardia may occur as a result of an increase in heart rate due to physical exertion, stress or excitement, or be a consequence of the increase in heart rate at rest.
In some cases, the tachycardia can occur without complications, however, it may seriously disrupt the normal functioning of the heart, increasing the risk of stroke or may result in cardiac arrest and sudden death. Risk factors for tachycardia is obesity and type 2 diabetes. There are sinus tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and paroxysmal.
Sinus tachycardia is a condition where by the sinus node to the ventricles conduction of impulses is disrupted or broken sinus node generating pulses that control heart rhythm. Her detected using an electrocardiogram, and its causes may be either external factors or malfunction of the sinus node.
Paroxysmal tachycardia is a condition in which there is a sudden and stopped the attack palpitations, with a frequency of 150-300 beats per minute. There are three forms of paroxysmal tachycardia:
The immediate causes of this type of tachycardia is increased activity of the nervous system and degenerative changes of the myocardium.
Ventricular fibrillation is a condition in which a frequency of 250-480 beats per minute occurs chaotic reducing myocardial fibers, which leads to lack of ventricular contractions and cardiac arrest. Often, ventricular fibrillation is the result of complications caused by an extensive myocardial infarction.
Reasons for tachycardia
The most common causes of tachycardia are disorders of the autonomic nervous system and hemodynamics, various forms of arrhythmia and disorders of the endocrine system.
Often tachycardia is a consequence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and heart defects. It is also one of the causes of tachycardia is excessive consumption of caffeine, alcohol and smoking. Contribute to the development of tachycardia thyroid disease and a variety of infectious diseases.
Symptoms of tachycardia
Tachycardia symptoms are:
- chest pain;
- Rapid heart rate (pulse);
- Shortness of breath;
In some cases, the tachycardia can occur without causing the above symptoms. In such cases, as a rule, the state detected during the medical examination or monitoring of heart.
Diagnosis of tachycardia
Diagnosis of tachycardia occurs through a medical examination, a series of surveys, analyzes and tests. Common tests for diagnosis are:
- Electrophysiological study, whereby it becomes possible to identify the source of the problems of the heart;
- Electrocardiography, by which determine the type of tachycardia and its effect on the heart rate;
- Holter monitoring, on the basis of which it is possible to obtain a complete picture of symptomatic disease.
Treatment of tachycardia
The main areas of treatment is to prevent it tachycardia episodes in the future to minimize the complications caused by the reduced frequency and heart rhythm to normal. Treatment of tachycardia can be medicated, the appointment of special medicines, or may be to change the way of life of the sick, avoiding stressful situations and recreation.