Spazmofilii - closely associated with rickets disease, which manifests itself as a tendency to spastic states, which is often observed in children 2-18 months.
Generally, full-term, and breastfed children rarely get sick spazmofilii. Diseases often subject to premature infants with signs of rickets.
Due to the existing methods of prevention of rickets, spazmofiliya today, especially in severe forms, is quite rare.
Causes of spazmofilii
The causes of spazmofilii children is the accumulation of vitamin D, which occurs when the use of high doses of the vitamin, and early spring, when there is an excess of its formation in the skin.
Higher doses of vitamin D active forms contribute to a reduced function of the parathyroid gland, which in turn stimulates the absorption of certain minerals salts (especially calcium and phosphorus) in the intestine and the reabsorption (reabsorption) in the renal tubules. This causes alkalosis development, and also because of hypocalcemia (reducing the concentration of calcium in the blood) in an excess of calcium is deposited in the bones. As a result, there is an increase neuromuscular excitability, leading to the emergence of seizures.
Spazmofiliya it is shown as a hidden or explicit.
Hide form spazmofilii in children is usually quite difficult to determine, because in this form of the disease of psychomotor and physical development is normal, although there are signs of rickets.
The most typical manifestations of latent flow spazmofilii are symptoms of Lust, chvostek, Erba, Trousseau and Maslow. Latent disease may occur due to the influence of provoking factors like fear, vomiting, crying, while she sometimes goes into explicit form of the disease.
The main types of symptoms manifest in children are spazmofilii laryngospasm, spasm karpopedalny, eclampsia, and perhaps a combination of both.
Laryngospasm (aka - "convulsions") is the most common manifestation of the disease. Spazmofilii symptom is an acute, rather sudden narrowing of the glottis, which is observed when frightened or crying, and often characterized by a closed glottis (partial or complete).
Against the background of laryngospasm appears resounding raucous breath ("cock") together with cyanosis, frightened look on his face and a cold sweat. When do symptoms appear abruptly spazmofilii can come complete cessation of breathing (up to 2 seconds), resulting in loss of consciousness. Typically, at the end of observed attack sonorous deep breath with a gradual recovery of breath.
In severe cases, seizures laryngospasm may be repeated several times a day, with long stops breathing possibly fatal.
Karpopedalny spasms in children is less common. It manifests itself in the form of tonic convulsions face, hands and feet. This form spazmofilii children is determined by the characteristic mean - hand dropped down, arms bent at the elbows, shoulders pressed against the trunk, his thumb pressed against the palm, knee and hip joints are bent. Depending on the flow spazmofilii spasms can last from 2-10 minutes to several hours. Against the background of a prolonged spasm may be swelling in the back of the feet and hands, and because of the orbicularis oris muscle spasm is sometimes called "fish mouth".
Eclampsia refers to the most dangerous form of spazmofilii. It is most common in infants. If eclampsia observed clonic-tonic convulsions with loss of consciousness. At the beginning of the attack appears sharp blanching face, accompanied by numbness, with a pronounced twitch muscles of the face at the corner of the mouth or eyes. After that, begin to twitch limbs, breathing is disturbed, interrupted by very short breaths, which leads to cyanosis. After the occurrence of stiffness usually occurs unconsciousness.
In many cases, develop seizures at night when the baby sleeps. Eclampsia usually lasts no more than half a minute. At this time, can stop the heart and breathing.
Diagnosis and treatment spazmofilii
If you suspect a spazmofilii diagnose children with signs of rickets in under two years, usually in the spring. From laboratory studies should be confirmed hypophosphataemia, hypocalcaemia and metabolic alkalosis and should exhibit a critical level of reduction in blood calcium - less than 1, 75 mmol / l.
Treatment includes medication spazmofilii relief seizures Drug relanium, seduksen, GABA, magnesium sulfate. To increase the level of calcium in the blood, a solution of 10% calcium gluconate. In addition, the treatment is carried out to eliminate alkalosis (3-5% ammonium chloride).
Subsequently, treatment is carried out using spazmofilii vitamin and after the level of calcium in the blood, administration of vitamin D in therapeutic doses.
When attack of laryngospasm should:
- Place the baby on a firm, flat surface;
- To ensure the access of air and unfasten clothing;
- Sprinkle cold water on his face and body, cause irritation of the nasal mucosa with ammonia or other means and to conduct therapy with calcium gluconate (iv) and Relanium (intramuscularly).
If the measures implemented by cupping spazmofilii not help conduct intubation and chest compressions (cardiac arrest).
It is believed that spazmofiliya in adults does not develop. However, there are a number of symptoms that are similar to the course of the disease, which often occur in adults and are not amenable to diagnosis and effective treatment. They are connected with arbitrary seizures, especially during sleep, crawl on the body, feeling cold and chilly.
Doctors in France conducted the study spazmofilii adults. According to information received, the disease is most prone to women with a lack of calcium in the body.
For the treatment of spazmofilii and cupping is recommended to eat foods rich in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Since in most cases the development of seizures spazmofilii provokes stress and conflict situations, it is advisable to be able to control your breathing and relax, helped by yoga and meditation.