Every adult person at least once in their lives experienced sleep disturbance and knows firsthand what it is. The causes of sleep disorders can be set, but when these violations are rare, appear sporadically and are associated with certain stimuli (situational), it is not considered a disease, although, of course, unpleasant. About sleep disorders as a health problem say when the patient is experiencing this condition regularly for a long time, resulting in reduced quality of life.
Sleep disturbance is a very common problem, according to medical statistics to them in one form or another affects more than 10% of the population, and it is only those who seek medical help. It is believed that if we consider those attempting to treat sleep disorders alone, this figure should be at least doubled.
Types of sleep disorders
Customarily considered the main type of insomnia sleep disorders, although this is just one of the disorders. Currently, the following classification of sleep disorders:
- Insomnia or sleeplessness. The disorder of sleep and ability to be able to sleep during the time needed for rest. Insomnia can be caused by various reasons: diseases, including mental health, medication, alcohol, coffee, respiratory disorders during sleep syndrome of "restless legs", stress and so on.
- Hypersomnia, or abnormal drowsiness. It may also be due to the presence of diseases - from mental health to infectious diseases, medication and drugs, respiratory disorders.
- Violation of the right alternation of sleep and wakefulness. Even caused by domestic factors, such as constantly changing work schedule, such an abnormality can lead to persistent sleep disturbances. This type of disorder is divided in turn into sustained period of sleep syndrome, syndrome premature sleep period, a syndrome of non-24-hour cycle of day.
- Parasomnias. This function disorders of sleep, during which there is a failure in the phases of sleep, incomplete awakening, increased motor activity, etc. These include: "sleepwalking", enuresis, episodes of night terrors, nocturnal seizures, and other functional disorders of sleep.
Causes of sleep disorders
Many factors can act as the causes of sleep disorders. Susceptibility to situational factors depends on the individual properties of the psyche. People excitable and impressionable easily stray from the usual sleep and wakefulness, and often even a slight psycho-emotional stress may trigger the development of sleep disorders.
If it is not a situational disorder, and the permanent, the most common cause of sleep disorders in adults is a medical illness. Circle diseases causing sleep disorder is very broad. It can be nerve, mental disorders, brain tumors, endocrine diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system and others. Such diseases can cause sleep disorders in children, but not the primary, as in childhood they are much less common.
One of the common causes of sleep disorders is the abuse of drugs, especially in cases of self-medication. In the same group of reasons may include sleep disorders due to excess caffeine reception drinks (tea, coffee, energy tonic popular in recent years, especially among young people), as well as use, especially systematic, alcohol or drugs.
Sleep disorders in children, especially young children, are often caused by disorders of the nervous system of innate character, or acquired as a result of birth trauma. In other cases, we are talking mainly about behavioral disorders due to improper organization of the process of going to sleep, or eating disorders, for example, late meals, irregular meals, evening reception trudousvaivaemoy food.
It may seem strange, but the wrong organization of sleep can cause sleep disorders in adults, no less. The absence of the regime of the day, the usual bedtime rituals, wrong diet and unsuccessfully selected location for a night's rest may as well as in young children, cause persistent insomnia.
Diagnosing sleep disorders
Since the sleep disorder is often a symptom of serious illness, it requires a thorough diagnosis, especially if persistent, long-term sleep disorders leading to chronic fatigue, decreased alertness, performance, and other signs of permanent sleep deprivation. It holds a general examination and neurological examination with the use of methods of laboratory (blood biochemistry, urine, etc.) And hardware (EEG, ECG, imaging of the brain and so forth.) Diagnostics.
Treatment of sleep disorders
If the disease is detected, which caused the development of the disorder, the treatment of sleep disorders consists mainly in the treatment of the underlying disease. To resolve sleep disorders in this case can be further applied mild sedative, but only after consulting a doctor, treating the underlying disease.
Treatment of sleep disorders, usually complex, consists of applying a drug and non-drug agents. Use sedatives and sleeping pills, with carefully calculated dosage, as many of them in the uncontrolled use can be addictive, and even a backlash - cause amplification sleep disorders, most often after the cancellation.
Drug-free treatment of sleep disorders is primarily in the proper organization of the process of going to sleep. There are general guidelines, following which, in some cases, helps to get rid of insomnia, even without resorting to drugs. For example, for patients with sleep disorders are very important mode of the day and nutrition, sufficient physical activity to avoiding fatigue, walking in the fresh air before going to bed, burdensome water treatment, etc.
From medical devices give good results physiotherapy (electric, calcium galvanic collar of Shcherbakov et al.), Bath with extracts of herbs (sage, pine needles) or oxygen baths, foot massage and neck area, ozone therapy. In some cases, it shows a course of psychotherapy. Sleep disorders, even resistant, successfully treated by means of health resorts. In this case, the positive role played by climate change, the lack of the usual stimuli, the organization of rest and proper nutrition, as well as balneotherapy, mud baths, thalassotherapy and other soft, but effective treatment for sleep disorders with the help of natural factors.