Sleep apnea - a respiratory arrest. The reason for the termination of the respiratory movements may be different diseases (asthma status, whooping cough, pneumonia), hyperventilation during increased breathing, poisoning some toxic substances. The term apnea sometimes involve an arbitrary delay breathing. It was a conscious breath holding is the basis of the whole theory and practice of diving without special breathing equipment. Man is one of the few mammals that are capable of conscious apnea.
Untrained people can hold their breath for up to 30-40 seconds. Practicing diving diver sometimes not able to breathe for 5-6 minutes.
The most important for medicine today gets sleep apnea, which is characterized by the cessation of breathing during sleep. The cause of this condition may or narrowing of the airways during sleep, or dysregulation of breathing structures of the central nervous system.
When obstructive sleep apnea oropharynx collapses under the influence of negative pressure in the respiratory system during inhalation. Sleep apnea is accompanied by the cessation of breathing in an average of 20-30 seconds, although sometimes the gap is increased to 3 minutes. These episodes can be repeated up to several hundred times a night, and every time a person wakes up for a moment. Contributing factors to sleep apnea in adults are adenoids, bone abnormalities of the skull in the front of, macroglossia, gigantism and acromegaly, nerve and muscle disease, and hypothyroidism. But most patients do not have any of these diseases, and cause obstruction becomes alcohol intake and obesity. Alcohol lowers the tone of the muscles of the pharynx, especially when combined with a chronic runny nose and congenital narrowness of the oropharynx.
Effects of sleep apnea
Apnea at night cause sleep disturbances and oxygen starvation. The clinical picture of the disease in adults is usually represented by daytime sleepiness, memory impairment, decreased intelligence, pulmonary hypertension, disorders of the heart, disruption of heart rhythm, high blood pressure, erythrocytosis. In adults and children, the most serious complication of sleep apnea is complete cessation of breathing, cardiac arrhythmias and death of the patient.
Diagnosis of sleep apnea
Sometimes patients for a long time did not know about the problem, because after morning awakening memories of sleep apnea are missing
. Such patients episodes of stopping breathing at night can tell close relatives
. The clinical picture of sleep apnea is growing slowly, so many complaints associated with the general aging of the body or other causes
. Suspected sleep apnea can be a combination of snoring and daytime sleepiness
. The observation of the patient during sleep can confirm the diagnosis
. However, the reference diagnostic method is considered somnografiya
. During the study, carried out an electroencephalogram, electromyography and registration of eye movements in a constant mode
. Additional equipment allows to monitor the concentration of oxygen in the blood during sleep
. Indications to this expensive test can be considered: expressed drowsiness during the day, pulmonary hypertension, polycythemia
. If you are already diagnosed with sleep apnea somnografiya allows an assessment of the effectiveness of the therapy and choose the mode of respiration under constant positive pressure, if necessary
Treatment of sleep apnea
In simple cases, the treatment of sleep apnea consists of weight loss to normal, non-alcoholic drinks, the treatment of chronic rhinitis. All patients are encouraged to sleep on their sides. Selecting the treatment of apnea, you must assess the risks and to exclude the possibility of their influence. In severe cases, patients are hospitalized for evaluation and selection of instrumental treatment.
The most effective way of treatment is considered Masked breath under constant positive pressure using a special apparatus. Of course, the majority of patients with difficult to get used to the inconvenience of the treatment of apnea. Often patients severely hampered noise machine, others difficult to sleep with a breathing mask on his face. Medical industry produces modern machines, where the discomfort to the patient is minimized. Another trend in therapy - mechanical locking devices that are inserted in the mouth for the nomination of the lower jaw forward. In rare extreme cases, for the treatment of sleep apnea can be performed tracheostomy operation overlay. The indication for this intervention is considered a threat to the arrhythmia and respiratory arrest.
Sleep apnea in children
Sleep apnea in children is rare. On the other hand, in its infancy, severe episodes of respiratory arrest mixed character, that may cause the death of the child. Deaths occur mainly at night. To a greater degree of apnea are children of the first years of life, with congenital disorders of the central nervous system of any severity. Parents sometimes accidentally fixed respiratory disorders in the child during the night and daytime sleep. At this point, the color of the skin becomes bluish, possible reflexive twitching of muscles, and breathing movements of the chest no. With the progression of developing hypoxia, loss of consciousness.
Adults can help - to wake the baby, do chest compressions, artificial respiration and call a pediatrician at the house
. For the prevention of apnea in children should be regularly ventilate the apartment, do not overheat the baby, laid the baby to sleep without a pillow during the first year of life
. Important role played by the fight against viral diseases, breast-feeding and baby sleep in the same room with her mother
. If the child has already recorded an episode of respiratory arrest, it must be carefully examined in the hospital
. There are special breathing sensors that set the baby in the crib
. When you stop breathing movements device sends a signal to parents
. Treatment of severe sleep apnea in infants is possible using the mask respiration with positive pressure, and with the help of drugs
. As children get older, the risk of apnea and the death of a child decreases dramatically
. Parents should not over-focus on the baby's breath, so as not to provoke at the development of the state of neurosis and neuroticism baby
. Remember that a child's breath can be a normal surface, the acceleration or deceleration
. A healthy child under one year are allowed a pause in breathing for 10 seconds and uneven breathing rhythm