Sinusitis - inflammation of the maxillary sinus.
Maxillary sinus, is paired paranasal sinuses, a small cavity located in the skull on either side of the nasal passages. The cavity is lined by mucosa. Small passages (1-3mm) maxillary sinus communicates with the nose. Maxillary sinus play an important role: they warmed and purified the air inhale nose (which is why you need the air to breathe nose, not your mouth), in addition, they act as resonators in the pronunciation of sounds. When sinusitis violated both of these functions.
Causes of sinusitis
Most often it develops as a complication of sinusitis after a viral infection - acute respiratory infections, SARS or influenza. Viral infections are accompanied by rhinitis, during which inflames and swells the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity. Because it is directly related to the mucosa of the maxillary sinus inflammation inevitably transferred there. That's why when a cold voice changes, acquires a special significance, "nose." Since the passage connecting the maxillary sinuses to the nose are very narrow, it is due to the swelling of the mucous membranes, they can completely overlap. Thus, in the closed cavity of the maxillary sinus with an inflamed mucosa slime and other products of inflammation, and subsequently formed pus. So begins sinusitis.
The cause of infection in the maxillary sinus can be an inflammatory process in the upper molars. In this case there odonotogenny sinusitis, not preceded by rhinitis. Another cause of sinusitis - an allergy, namely allergic rhinitis.
Types of sinusitis
Sinusitis can be single- or double-sided.
According to the clinical course of acute or chronic.
By the nature of the inflammation can be acute sinusitis catarrhal or purulent. Chronic sinusitis are of the following types;
- Hyperplastic sinusitis, in which the mucous membrane is thickened, narrowing the lumen of the sinus and the opening communicating with the cavity of the nasal sinus;
- Polypoid sinusitis, in which the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus formed polyps - soft growths grozdevidnye filling the sinus cavity;
- Atrophic. This type of sinusitis mucosa atrophies and ceases to perform its functions;
- Mixed. When mixed type of sinusitis in the mucosa of the maxillary sinus have areas with different types of chronic inflammatory processes.
Symptoms of sinusitis
Symptoms of sinusitis usually appear for the fifth-seventh day of the disease viral infection, when, instead of the expected relief comes deterioration of general condition, fever, a headache. Pain increases when pressing on the cheek in the nose. A sign of the changing nature of sinusitis is nasal discharge that become purulent and acquire an unpleasant smell of stagnant.
Symptoms of sinusitis in chronic appear periodically, as chronic sinusitis tend to flow with remissions and exacerbations. During exacerbations of chronic sinusitis proceeds similar to the acute and remission while the patient can do nothing to disturb or bother frequent headaches.
A sign of sinusitis in chronic form is also exposure to viral infections, because, firstly, the focus of chronic infection in the body further undermines the immune system, and secondly, the mucosa of the maxillary sinus does not fulfill its function of cleaning and warming of the air entering the nasopharynx . Due to changes in the mucous membrane there is one more sign of sinusitis - "nasal" sounding voice.
Features flow of sinusitis in children
Sinusitis in children under four years do not happen because of the anatomical features. The fact that up to four years, the maxillary sinus in children is not developed, they are narrow slits, which do not contain air. By four years, the growth of the facial bones of the skull, sinus shaped in the form in which they are adults - a cavity lined by mucosa. With this age sinusitis in children may occur due to the same reasons as sinusitis in adults.
A feature of the flow of sinusitis in children is a tendency to more rapid flow of the process. Like many other infectious diseases, sinusitis in children is more often acute than chronic. Another feature of sinusitis in children is that the inflammation is easier than in the adult, extends beyond the sinuses, for example, in the suborbital space. Due to the fact that children are generally more likely to suffer from respiratory infections and the common cold, sinusitis often in children remain unrecognized for a long time.
Treatment for sinusitis
Treatment of sinusitis is made, in most cases conservative treatment, using the general and local drug therapy and physical therapy equipment. However, in severe, advanced cases resorting to surgical treatment of sinusitis.
General treatment of sinusitis is assigned on the basis of the causes and forms of the disease. When sinusitis infectious origin can be assigned to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. Recently changed medical tactics for the appointment of antibiotics for sinusitis. Previously it was thought necessary at the present time, the overall antibiotic therapy is now performed only for serious reasons, preference is given to topical application of antibacterial drugs.
The fact that it was found that due to swelling blood circulation in the mucosa of the maxillary sinuses during sinusitis and antibiotics from the blood come to their destination in a very small, trace amounts. At the same time a large number of them circulating through the body. It should be borne in mind that antibiotics are always their side effect is suppression of the immune system. As a result, antibiotics for sinusitis are ineffective in most cases, as causes more harm than good.
For the treatment of sinusitis of allergic origin prescribe antihistamines.
However, any type of sinusitis is the main treatment in the local therapy. Local treatment of sinusitis is to assign vasoconstrictive drops in the first five days of the disease, in order to remove swelling of the mucosa and create outflow. Note that in the following days and chronic sinusitis vasoconstrictor drops are not effective. Appointed nasal lavage solutions anti-inflammatory drugs every 3-4 hours.
If you can not create and remove drain pus from sinuses in outpatient conditions make sinus puncture, using a long needle. This allows the evacuation of decomposition products directly wash the sinus cavity with antiseptic solutions.
For the treatment of sinusitis in chronic appointed bracing means, it is very effective in this case, Physiotherapy: UHF, microwave, laser and magnitnoterapiya. We also need oral hygiene to prevent the penetration of infection from carious teeth of the upper jaw.