General characteristics of the disease
Schizophrenia - is a medical term used to describe a whole group of mental disorders. Based on the different features of schizophrenia are several types of diseases. Each of them is characterized by impairments of varying severity in the behavior of the patient, his thinking and manifestation of emotions.
The main symptom of schizophrenia of any kind - a distorted perception of reality by man, causing severe personality changes. These symptoms are usually sporadic, but the frequency of exacerbations in each patient individually. The so-called psychotic episodes sometimes occur only a few times in the life of the patient with schizophrenia, and everything else, he is in remission. Until the next relapse, he could give the impression it is a healthy person without showing any signs of schizophrenia.
Causes of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia - a fairly common disease diagnosed on average 1% of the Earth's inhabitants. The first psychotic episode in the life of the patient with schizophrenia usually occurs before the age of 30 years. Moreover, the early signs of schizophrenia in men often appear up to 20 years. And for women, on the contrary, the disease is rarely diagnosed in adolescence. The peak severity of symptoms of schizophrenia in the fairer sex - 25-30 years.
Accurate cause of schizophrenia is unknown. For many researchers this serious mental disorder is undeniable fact that the disease does not cause an error, or a weakness of character education of patients with schizophrenia. To date, the most recognized is the theory of the complex nature of the disease etiology. A significant role in the development of schizophrenia genetic factor plays. Patients with schizophrenia are more common in families with hereditary predisposition to the disease.
He has a right to exist factor disturbed chemical balance in the processes of the brain, as well as the possible anatomical pathology of. Some scientists fully admit that the trigger for mental disorders in patients with schizophrenia could serve as certain environmental conditions, such as high stress situations.
The symptoms of schizophrenia
A complex set of a variety of symptoms of schizophrenia is conventionally divided into three large groups. The first of these are the so-called positive symptoms of schizophrenia. In this context, the word "positive" is not used in the sense of "good", and indicates the presence of symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, committed atypical for a healthy person. The positive or psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia rank delusions and hallucinations.
The second group consists of disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia. They appear in the person's inability to think logically and react to what is happening. In patients with schizophrenia, for example, incoherent speech, rapid transitions from one idea to another chaotic. Patients with disorganized symptoms are moving in slow motion, constantly forgetting or losing things, long-term repeat the same movement.
And the last third of the group consists of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. They are expressed in the absence of emotion in patients with schizophrenia or inadequate expression of these emotions of the situation, for example, laughter instead of tears. In patients with schizophrenia, there is no interest in life. For them, often characterized by the sudden changeability of mood and canonical. Its essence is the ability of long-term schizophrenic patient in a state of immobility.
Diagnosis of schizophrenia
Specific laboratory tests for the diagnosis of schizophrenia does not exist. Traditional methods for studying the composition of blood, urine, x-rays and ultrasound of use in order to exclude the possibility of organic causes of the manifestation of schizophrenia. If the therapist is not possible to find any physical factors that trigger symptoms of schizophrenia, it sends the patient to a specialist - psychiatrist. Further diagnosis of the disease takes place in the format of a conversation with the patient and monitoring his behavior.
Treatment of Schizophrenia
Full recovery from schizophrenia is not possible. There is a comprehensive maintenance therapy of the disease. Its aim is to reduce the severity of symptoms of schizophrenia and reduce the likelihood of recurrence of psychotic episodes. Drug treatment of schizophrenia is the appointment of antipsychotic drugs. They successfully cope with many of the symptoms of schizophrenia: hallucinations, delusions, etc.
Psychosocial treatment of schizophrenia is a set of techniques to overcome the patient's problems in social adaptation. Patients with schizophrenia learn to recognize the early signs of the disease and as much control over their appearance. As part of psychosocial treatment of schizophrenia doctor and patient work together to develop a plan of action in case of recurrence of psychotic episodes. Simultaneously held sessions of individual and family psychotherapy.
Treatment of schizophrenia - life and also includes the rehabilitation of the patient's development of social skills and professional skills to help patients with schizophrenia, as far as possible, to live in society. Hospitalization of patients with schizophrenia in the medical institutions of closed type is carried only if the person poses a threat to others, and if he is able to cause harm to your health or life.
Traditionally held the treatment of schizophrenia with individual outpatient schedule supplementation, psychological counseling sessions and so on. D. The most aggressive techniques - electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery - are used only in cases where all the other useless are already tried methods of treating schizophrenia.
Is it dangerous to people with schizophrenia?
Most patients with this type of mental disorders are not dangerous to others. Patients with schizophrenia are prone to self-imposed isolation from society, alcohol abuse, drug addiction formation. Most often their behavior is dangerous to their lives. Suicide - one of the most common causes of early death in patients with schizophrenia. However, the minimum percentage of patients with aggressive behavior forces the relevant medical institutions to maintain strict records of all patients with schizophrenia and to apply, if necessary, compulsory hospitalization.