General information about the disease
Under rubella mean an acute viral infection that belongs to the category of so-called childhood diseases, that is, more often it is found in childhood. The very name of the disease "Rubella" is derived from the characteristic color of the rash, which a few days covers the body of the sick person.
Rubella is known to doctors since the Middle Ages, and in those days it was common almost everywhere. Nevertheless, for many centuries, scientists believed that rubella in children is absolutely harmless. Communication disease with fetal infant mortality and congenital deformities in children have shown only in the 40s of the last century, after which vaccination against rubella was included in the national vaccination dozens of countries.
What causes rubella, and how it is transmitted?
The causative agent of rubella virus from a group of Togaviridae. From person to person it is transmitted through airborne droplets by direct contact with an infected person. Also known transtsplatsentarny and rubella transmission in which the child becomes infected in the womb, when the virus passes to the fetus through the placenta.
Pathogen Rubella can comfortably exist only in the human body. In the external environment, it quickly dies due to ultraviolet rays, changing the pressure, low humidity and high temperature. At low temperatures, the virus, in contrast, lives long and retains the ability to grow for several years.
Intrigue rubella virus is that the incubation period of the disease lasts 2 to 3 weeks. Accordingly, the sick person becomes infectious long before the first adverse symptoms appear. Note also that in the diagnosis of measles symptoms in children may be absent. As a result, one sick child often infects everyone around you, and suddenly remember the doctors only when children have the characteristic rash on the body.
Outbreaks of measles occur every 5-7 years. The annual exacerbation occur in spring and summer, but do not represent any particular risk because of effective prevention measures. The last case of a large-scale epidemic was recorded in the 60s in North America. Then ill with more than 20 million. People, and after the outbreak of rubella in pregnant women, thousands of children were born with certain congenital deformities.
Types of rubella
Depending on the route of infection, rubella in adults and children is divided into two types:
- rubella - takes place in a variety of forms, accompanied by a rash on the body, but may have atypical clinical development, in which the rash is not formed. In addition, 30% of any symptoms of rubella-existent, which greatly complicates the correct diagnosis and to provoke the spread of epidemics. Typically, the disease is mild or moderate form, and patients are treated at home. Hospitalization is indicated only in case of severe complications, which, however, are extremely rare;
- congenital rubella - is much more serious than the infection is acquired. It concerns both the manifestations and the possible consequences, among which we can highlight the damage to the nervous system, heart defects, abnormalities in the eye and ear.
In connection with the above, I want to make one important point: measles in adults is rare, as most of the people perebolevayut in childhood, and the resulting immunity lasts for life. At the moment, at least 85% of women are immune to infection at the time of the onset of reproductive age.
The symptoms of rubella
The acquired form of rubella occurs in cycles. Symptoms of measles begin with:
- The transient increase in body temperature;
- joint pain;
- the appearance of the rash melkopyatnistoy pink (appears on the 2-3 days of illness, it spreads throughout the body).
Unlike measles, individual elements of the rash does not have a tendency to disappear without draining and pigmentation or desquamation. Typical symptoms of rubella - swollen lymph nodes in the neck and occipital region. Symptoms of fever and intoxication or minor or completely absent. In many cases, the disease occurs in inappartnoy form when rubella symptoms in children are very weak, making it impossible to correct setting, early diagnosis.
Treatment for rubella is usually carried out at home. A child needs to ensure bed rest, nutritious food, rich in vitamins, drinking plenty of fluids (preferred juices and fruit drinks, soft drinks - excluded).
Specific treatment is not carried out rubella. Specialists monitor the status of the child, using symptomatic agents. When complications shown urgent hospitalization, but as mentioned above, the need for it occurs extremely rarely. Forecasts treatment - favorable. In most cases, measles disappears after a few days and does not lead to serious consequences. After healing a person acquires lifelong immunity. Medicine there are cases where measles in adults manifested again, but it's the rare exception, due to the peculiarities of the human immune system.
To prevent epidemics used prophylactic vaccination against rubella and isolation of infected children. It is important to exclude the sick child communication with pregnant women, because pregnant women without immunity it may lead to fetal malformations.
Vaccination of the population is included in the national immunization schedule. The vaccine is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, when the child is one year. Re-vaccination against rubella is done in 6 years. Specific immunity occurs in 100% of vaccinated and persists throughout life.