Brief description of the disease
Rickets - a disease that is characterized by a deficiency of vitamin D. It helps to absorb calcium in the body, which is required for the construction and development of bone tissue, as well as for the normal functioning of the nervous system and other organs. The most common rickets in children, preferably up to three years. Although there is a possibility of occurrence of rickets, and in older children and adults.
The causes of rickets
The main cause of rickets - a flaw in the human vitamin D, which leads to violation of metabolism in the body of substances such as calcium and phosphorus. Consequently impaired mineralization and bone growth observed pathological changes in the nervous system and internal organs. Lack of this vitamin can be caused by poor nutrition monotonous, a rare stay in the sun, because vitamin D is produced by ultraviolet light. Sometimes the cause of rickets may be unfavorable living conditions of mothers and children, complications during childbirth, taking certain medications, birth weight or prematurity.
Symptoms of rickets
Rachitis symptoms depend on the extent of the disease. The observed changes in the nervous system that occur frequent crying, anxiety and irritability. It is also possible the fear of bright flashes of light and loud sounds.
One of the signs of rickets is excessive sweating, which is most often seen at night, when the cry, and the feeding. The child sweats even when the room is cool, and it is easily dressed. Pot has an unpleasant sour smell and irritates the skin. The child turns the head on the pillow, because of which the hair falls on his head and a bald head is formed, which is another sign of rickets. Hands and feet of the patient are always wet.
Rickets year appears to defeat the chest and skull. At the initial stage softening parietal and the occipital bone, and fontanelle their edges. If you do not carry out adequate treatment, then after a short time it progresses rickets. At the same time an increase in the frontal and parietal hillocks, the head is square. Deformed thorax, bent hip. Breast child becomes like a chicken. There is thickening of the long bones in the forearm and the phalanges ("rachitic bracelets" and "string of pearls"). Legs are bent, they take the letter O or X, deformed pelvis. Signs of rickets in the absence of treatment may also occur in the second and third year of life, skeletal deformity may remain for a lifetime.
Rickets in children is characterized by slow growth of teeth, disruption of the heart and lungs, vegetative-vascular changes that occur in excessive sweating and marbling of the skin, there may be violations of the stomach and intestines. If there rickets to a year, such a child begins to stand or sit later, often sick. The consequences of possible health problems and correct position of the teeth, which will be needed to correct the achievements of modern orthodontics.
Degrees of rickets
There are three degrees of rickets.
First degree - symptoms of rickets occur in the nervous and muscular system, do not leave the consequences. This is the most mild rickets.
Second degree - there is a deformation of the skull, limbs and chest, moderate disturbances occur in organs and systems, there is anemia, increase in size of the spleen and liver.
Third Degree - the hardest. Symptoms of rickets enough expressed and characterized by severe changes of the various organs and systems (bone, muscle, blood-forming). The child receives insufficient oxygen due to deformation of the sternum.
Treatment of rickets
The main treatment of rickets in children - a regular intake of vitamin D in a dose that prescribed by the physician. The dosage depends on the severity of the disease and age of the child. Also it has a good effect UV radiation, which occurs under the influence of the body's own production of vitamin D. Conduct therapeutic massage and special exercises. Treatment involves the appointment of rickets baths with herbal extracts (series, oak bark, plantain). It is important to remember that treatment of the disease should be carried out only by the doctor as an overdose of vitamin D can cause serious consequences in the internal organs, especially the liver, heart and kidneys.
Prevention of rickets
Prevention of rickets is the proper organization of food and daily routine of the child. Prevention of rickets until the year suggests breastfeeding with the balanced nutrition of the mother. In this case, the child will receive the necessary dose of vitamin D in breast milk. If the child is bottle-fed, you should choose a high-quality blend adapted. Such mixtures also contain the right amount of vitamin D. Menu child after a year should be varied and include dairy products, egg yolk and fish. They contain large amounts of vitamin D.
The fresh air and the sun's rays are excellent prevention of the disease. More walk with your child, especially in the warmer months. UV rays contribute to the production of vitamin D.
Perform exercises with the child and make him a massage. Good muscle activity contributes to better bone saturation in blood, which decreases the risk of rickets.
In autumn and winter the doctor may prescribe a prophylactic vitamin D. Do not exceed the recommended dose, as this could lead to negative consequences.