Retinoblastoma

 Retinoblastoma

Malignant tumor of the retina - retinoblastoma, a neuroectodermal origin, and refers to a group of hereditary diseases. It is transmitted from parents to children in an autosomal dominant manner.

Today, the number of cases of retinoblastoma in children has increased significantly. For comparison, according to official health statistics twenty years ago retinoblastoma in children is diagnosed in 1 case, 30 thousand live births, today the figure is 1 in 10-15 thousand.

Retinoblastnaya tumor may form on any part of the retina. At the initial stage of the tumor appears disturbed reflex definition fundus. In the next stage of growth of retinoblastoma is formed flat dull education with blurred contours. Further development of the tumor depends on its type and the total clinical picture of the disease.

Types of retinoblastoma

By type of distribution in tissues experts are divided 2 stages of the disease retinoblastoma:

1. Step endophytic growth (intraocular). At this stage of the disease the cancer grows inside the eyeball. Tumor growth was accompanied by an increase in pressure inside the eye, the appearance of glaucoma, and sometimes the onset of blindness. The patient experiences pain, dizziness, nausea, retching occasionally occur in some cases may form persistent anorexia.

2. Stage exophytic growth (extraocular). At this stage of the disease malignant growth is not limited to the space of the eyeball. Getting in intracranial region along the optic nerve, tumor cells proliferate at the central nervous system, lymph nodes metastases capture.

In one eye at a time can be diagnosed tumor growth of two types described above.

There is also a division of retinoblastoma on the etiology of the disease:

1. Hereditary retinoblastoma. The most common form of the disease (more than 70 percent of all cases). Usually, retinoblastoma in children is combined with other multiple congenital malformations - heart defects, cortical hyperostosis, cleft palate and so on. D. For hereditary retinoblastoma is characterized by extremely rapid development, a malignant tumor is formed simultaneously on two eyeballs.

In most cases, this type of retinoblastoma is detected at an early age of the child (under 30 months).

2. Sporadic retinoblastoma. It occurs much less frequently. Projections for this type of disease more favorable. When sporadic retinoblastoma affected one eye, the tumor is formed locally, t. E. Formed a tumor site (unilateral tumor). Retinoblastoma sporadic forms may occur at a later age.

Reasons for retinoblastoma

Unfortunately, the causes of retinoblastoma to date has not thoroughly established (if it is not a hereditary cases of the disease). A disappointing trend of increasing number of cases retinoblastoma clearly demonstrates the negative impact of current environmental conditions, poor quality of food consumed by the majority, causing mutations in the fetal stage of development of the fetus.

Symptoms of retinoblastoma

 The first symptom of the disease - redness of the eye

Rinoblastomoy disease is accompanied by the following symptoms:

- Redness of the eyes;

- Pain;

- Dilated pupils;

- Partial or complete loss of vision;

- Sometimes squint;

- At a later stage leykokoriya - literally means "eye white" (pupillary reflex red as it should be, and white).

Diagnosis of retinoblastoma

Diagnosis of retinoblastoma is conducted in a specialized hospital. Given the young age of patients retiblastomoy all diagnostic measures and procedures are carried out under general anesthesia. Typically, physicians prefer not to cytological and histological samples diseased tissue, as during collection of material there is very high risk of instrumental transfer cell metastasis.

For the diagnosis of retinoblastoma, the following studies are required:

- Computed tomography of the brain, the eye orbit, eyeball;

- Ultrasound;

- X-rays;

- Biplane Ultrasound examination of the eye; Good results are obtained by ultrasound scanner Logiq P6;

- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).

As additional diagnostic methods can be used:

- Bone marrow puncture;

- Puncture of the spinal cord;

- Radioisotope study of bone (bone scan).

Treatment of retinoblastoma

 Treatment of retinoblastoma

Tactics of treatment of retinoblastoma depends on the overall clinical assessment of the patient and the stage of the formation of cancer.

Experts are divided stage retinoblastoma, in accordance with the following degrees of severity:

- Stage 1 (tumor formation restricted to the retina);

- Stage 2 (restricted to the tumor mass of the eyeball);

- Stage 3 (extraocular);

- 4th stage (characterized by distant metastasis).

After determining the severity of the disease retinoblastoma, the following remedial measures:

1. Surgery. It refers to the least used in the absolute loss of visual functions and the complete impossibility of their recovery. As an integrated treatment prescribed chemical and radiation therapy.

2. Cryosurgery - therapy at low temperatures retinoblastoma mild stage of the front portion of the retina.

3. Method of photocoagulation. Using laser beams has a good therapeutic effect in the treatment of retinoblastoma mild stage of the rear portion of the retina.

4. Thermotherapy (integrated application of microwave therapy, ultrasound and infrared radiation).





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