Macular degeneration eye
General characteristics of the disease
Macular degeneration eyes - one of the main causes of low vision elderly. The disease is an irreversible destruction of retinal tissue and the gradual inhibition of the function of organs of vision.
The causes of degeneration of the retina, rather different. Primarily, this age accumulation in the tissues of the decay products of metabolism. Significant role in short supply the power of the visual retinal cells also play a circulatory disturbances, intoxication, infection.
Contributing factors to the development of retinal degeneration is also the short-sightedness. It leads to increased pressure in the eye membranes, cause an increase in the transverse dimension of a short-sighted view of the person.
Other factors that triggers the degeneration of the retina, presumably considered diabetes, smoking, obesity, high blood pressure. Macular degeneration eye may develop in a fairly young age on the background pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, thyroid pathologies, as well as a result of injuries.
Symptoms of macular degeneration
An early symptom of macular degeneration is a gradual decrease in clarity of near vision. The disease progresses slowly and eventually leads to the perception of distorted images. Patients with symptoms of macular degeneration often complain of double vision visually perceived objects, broken lines, the presence of blind spots in the vision. However, total blindness as a result of degeneration of the retina develops quite rare.
Types of retinal dystrophy
Chorioretinal degeneration of the retina, it is also age-related macular degeneration of the retina, is typical for people over 50 years. The disease can lead to a complete loss of central vision. In this patient with peripheral vision chorioretinal retinal dystrophy is stored in the normal range.
Without central vision impossible clarity of perception of objects. People with symptoms of retinal degeneration of this type are not able to read or run vehicles. The rate of progression of the disease depends on the type and severity of chorioretinal degeneration of the retina.
The wet form of the disease is considered the most severe, swift and difficult to treat. However, most (9 out of 10 cases) common dry form of macular degeneration chorioretinal. In her process of gradual destruction of the cells of the central part of the retina (macula) it takes several years.
In another type of retinal dystrophy, peripheral retinal degeneration, changes affect the peripheral parts of the fundus. The danger of this disease is that early stage in the development of peripheral retinal degeneration occurs virtually asymptomatic. First degenerative changes can be diagnosed only by using a special ophthalmologic equipment.
However, these changes are very important to diagnose it at an early stage of peripheral retinal degeneration. Only in this way can effectively prevent the serious complications of the disease - detachment or tearing of the retina. Such pathology, in contrast to their root causes, rather difficult to treat.
Pigmentary retinal dystrophy - the most rare anomaly caused by hereditary factors. To her cause disruptions to retinal photoreceptors responsible or twilight black and white or color for daytime vision.
Pigmentary retinal dystrophy can be passed from mother to child by autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant inheritance. Most often suffer pigmentary retinal dystrophy men. The clinical picture of the disease and the mechanism of deep individual.
When pigmented retinal dystrophy is a mild slight decrease in visual acuity in a poorly lit area. In severe cases, pigmentary retinal dystrophy may complete extinction of visual function.
Diagnosis of retinal dystrophy
The most informative diagnostic methods retinal dystrophy is a laser scan of the retina with an optical scanner, a central computer perimetry and fluorescent angiography of blood vessels of the fundus. They can detect the earliest signs of retinal dystrophy.
In addition, early diagnosis of the disease can also be used to test color vision tests, the contrast of view, the size of the central and peripheral visual fields.
Treatment of retinal dystrophy
In the treatment of retinal dystrophy chorioretinal form used method of photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, as well as injections of anti-VEGF drugs. The latter are a special protein that can stop the degenerative processes in the macula of the eye.
Photodynamic treatment of retinal dystrophy involves intravenous substances photosensitizers. They are able to bind proteins of pathological vessels and to suspend the development of dystrophy. Mode of photodynamic treatment of retinal dystrophy established individually, depending on the patient's sensitivity to this type of therapy.
At the heart of the laser treatment of the retina dystrophy is a technique of cauterization abnormal blood vessels. At the site of the burn on the eye macular tissues formed scar, and vision in this area had never recovered. However, this technique helps to prevent the further spread of degeneration of the retina.
In the treatment of pigmentary degeneration of the retina used mainly physiotherapy techniques: magnetic and electrical stimulation of tissues of the eye. Unfortunately, their efficiency is not high. Have limited effect as vazorekonstruktivnye operation aimed at improving blood supply to the retina.
Prevention of retinal detachment in the peripheral retinal dystrophy is performed using laser photocoagulation. This minimally invasive non-contact method of treatment of retinal dystrophy avoids surgical dissection of the eyeball. The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis and requires virtually no recovery period.
As an adjuvant treatment retinal dystrophy of all types used dieto- and vitamin therapy.