Respiratory failure - a condition of the body of a pathological nature, in which the system of external respiration is not ensured normal blood gas, or it can only be achieved at elevated work of breathing (dyspnea).
To diagnose the disease may be at a reduced oxygen partial pressure of 45 mm Hg. Art.
Classification of respiratory failure
Classifications of the disease, there are several.
1. Classification patogenetike.
Ventilation is characterized by hypoxemia and hypercapnia (hypoxemia can be easily cured with the help of oxygen therapy). The causes of are:
- weakness or fatigue of muscles responsible for breathing;
- mechanical defect muscle-bone skeleton chest;
- violation of the center responsible for breathing.
- heavy weight;
- loss muscles responsible for respiratory function;
During parenchymal forms there is hypoxia, which is heavily corrected oxygen therapy. There is this classification because:
- cardiogenic pulmonary edema;
2. Classification of the speed of development.
- chronic respiratory failure;
- acute respiratory failure.
The chronic form may develop gradually and imperceptibly a few months or years, and after a partial recovery from the acute form.
Acute respiratory failure may develop within a few minutes, hours or days, is life-threatening, and in almost all cases evolves with hemodynamic compromise. It can also develop if a person already has a chronic form (due to exacerbation or decompensation of chronic forms of respiratory failure).
3. Classification by severity.
Three degrees of respiratory failure on the severity of.
When the first degree (minor) is sometimes shortness of breath, heart rate at rest is about 80 beats per minute and there is no or insignificant cyanosis.
At the second degree (mild) shortness of breath occurs even during normal load, the pulse is prone to frequent and cyanosis - a distinct and significant.
During the third degree of respiratory failure (severe) shortness of breath occurs even at rest, greatly speeded up pulse, and cyanosis, diffuse pronounced.
Emergency care for acute respiratory failure
Emergency care for acute respiratory failure is to restore and maintain free and cross drainage respiratory elimination of related abnormalities in blood circulation, improving pulmonary gas exchange and alveolar ventilation.
To ensure a free airway patency in the first place to put the patient in the correct position. Often patency in the throat caused by depressions in the hypopharynx language. In the larynx, trachea and bronchi can cause obstruction of getting third-party bodies, pathological accumulation of secretions, swelling or spasm and squeeze the airways due to mechanical trauma or tumor. The first thing to do - is to put the victim on the right side.
In order to prevent and eliminate sticking of language jaw forward is output, and at the same time, the occipito-cervical junction produce hyperextension. To do this, you must use the pressure of the thumbs-down to move the lower jaw, and then placed in the corners of the jaw fingers to push it forward at the same time pererazgibaya head back. These manipulations will help to quickly restore patency in the throat.
Ceasing language also warn through special oral ducts. Before their introduction oropharynx clean gauze or aspirated secret aspirator.
It is also possible to provide emergency assistance to help tracheal intubation or tracheotomy konikotomii.
Treatment of respiratory failure
Treatment of respiratory failure combined. First you need to determine the type and degree of respiratory failure and how quickly it develops. Treat as a very necessary failure, and the cause that leads to it.
For treatment of respiratory insufficiency in oxygen therapy is mainly used. In those cases where the respiration and blood gas composition are not improved, auxiliary conduct noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation. If this does not work, we recommend the use of invasive mechanical ventilation. At the same time it is necessary to treat the underlying disease and using antibiotic therapy. Ventilate the lungs should be good to full recovery of spontaneous breathing.
Respiratory failure in children
The causes of respiratory failure in children very much. There it is in children because of respiratory diseases, disorders of the airway after regurgitation or vomiting, lung parenchyma, the tongue, injuries or diseases of the central nervous system, muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and after getting third-party bodies or chest injuries.
Identify respiratory failure in a child can be of hypoxemia, hyper- and hypocapnia. It should be noted that hypercapnia does not develop without hypoxemia - they are combined.
Hospitalization in the third degree of respiratory failure is mandatory.