Radiation damage - tissue damage is caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. The term "ionizing
radiation "is meant emitted by artificial or natural sources of high-energy waves, which have the ability to penetrate objects and ionize the surrounding environment. Tissue damage caused by radiation can be short-term (one-time) or long-term exposure.
Radiation injuries can be caused by radiation therapy, in which exposures are not only affected, but some of the healthy tissue. Under the influence of radiation in the body develops a pathological process. If the dose was tolerated, it regresses on their own, leaving only traces of softly expressed sclerosis and atrophy of tissues (local rr). In case of exceeding the permissible exposure doses of radiation injuries occur irreversible. At the heart damage are obliterated vessels sclerosis, degeneration of nerve fibers and endings atrophy of tissue replacement in the hyalinized connective tissue.
Classification of radiation injuries
Radioactive radiation can cause two types of radiation injuries: acute and chronic.
Acute (immediate) radiation injuries have two clinical forms:
- Acute radiation sickness. It characterized by an external beta, gamma, neutron irradiation;
- Acute local radiation injuries. Caused by contact (hit of radiation exposure on clothing, skin, mucous membranes).
Chronic radiation injuries manifest themselves in the form of chronic radiation sickness and occur due to prolonged external or internal radiation. The severity of chronic radiation injuries caused total dose and physiological characteristics of an organ.
Typical symptoms of chronic radiation sickness are regional circulatory disorders in the limbs, skin, brain, manifested in the form of headaches, weakness, chilliness in the extremities, neurological symptoms, changes in cardiac, digestive tract, asthenic syndrome.
One of the most common forms of local radiation injuries - radiation dermatitis. The reason for its occurrence is the uneven radiation exposure during accidents at nuclear power plants, explosions of ammunition, and in the domestic environment - radiotherapy of tumor and non-neoplastic diseases. A common localization of local radiation injuries are the fingers, hands, face, front thighs.
radiation injuries of the skin is also subject to division into acute and chronic.
Acute radiation skin lesions are diseases such as:
- Early radiation reaction (is accompanied by a slight itching edematous erythema develops 1-2 days after irradiation at a dose of at least 3 Gy);
- Radiation alopecia. Accompanied by precipitation of long hair after two to four weeks after the irradiation dose is not less than 3, 75 Gy;
- Acute radiation dermatitis. It appears for 2 months after irradiation. Erythematous lesions observed in the form of a dose of 8-12 Gy, unlike other dermatitis purple-bluish color of the skin, feeling pain, itching, hair loss;
- Acute bullous dermatitis. Characterized radiation dose of at least 12-20 Gy, accompanied by fever, pronounced pain and burning. The healing of erosions after opening the bubble is slow and accompanied by pigmentation disorders, development of atrophy, telangiectasias;
- Acute necrotizing dermatitis develops after exposure dose over 25 Gy and is accompanied by excruciating pain, chills, fever, weakness. Skin lesions are presented in the form of edema, erythema, blisters, after the opening of which there are long-term healing of ulcers. When wound healing scars are formed, a slight injury which may lead to tissue necrosis.
Chronic radiation skin lesions, in turn, are divided into:
- Chronic radiation dermatitis that develops at the site of acute dermatitis. The disease is clinically manifested by atrophy of the skin, dryness, painful cracks form, against which may cause papillomatosis, and hyperkeratosis.
- Late radiation dermatosis (a indurative edema, late radiation ulcers, radiation cancer).
Indurativnyy edema occurs as a result of damage to small lymphatic vessels and, consequently, violations of the outflow of lymph. Clinical manifestation - a dense swelling without pain, resolution of which remains telangiectasia and atrophy of tissues.
Against the background of trophic skin changes produced late radiation ulcers, characterized by severe pain. During the long existence of radiation ulcers may develop intractable diseases such as radiation cancer.
Prevention of radiation injuries
By means of carrying out the prevention of radiation injuries, include drugs that reduce the severity of radiation damage to the body. These include drugs that increase radioresistance of the organism, radioprotective, antiradiation drugs, drugs that can arrest (prevent) the primary manifestations of reactions to radiation exposure.