Brief description of the disease
Purpura is characterized by the presence of the skin of small capillary hemorrhages. Petechial hemorrhages called petechiae, in strips - vibeks, melkopyatnistye - ecchymosis, krupnopyatnistye - bruises.
The rash most commonly seen on the lower extremities. Their color is initially red or burgundy, but eventually changed to purple, brown, green and yellow (7-10 days).
The causes of purpura
Purpura may be accompanied by a variety of diseases, but the mechanism of development remains unchanged. In general, the main cause of purpura - a bleeding tendency due to certain pathological processes, such as damage or deficiency of platelets, blood coagulation disorders, with the infectious nature or arising out of certain drugs, pathological changes of the vascular wall.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Thrombocytopenic purpura - a disease associated with a reduction in the number of platelets in the blood. It can be both independently and be accompanied by a number of other diseases. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is a children's disease, which manifests itself mainly in the age of 14. More common in girls.
The mechanism of the disease is the following. Under the influence of any drugs or infection changes the properties of normal platelets. The immune system takes them for foreign cells and produces antibodies that block them. Such platelets are caught and the spleen cells are destroyed in it. Developing thrombocytopenia.
By the nature of rash and petechiae bruising prevail. When idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children bruising can occur even from minor bumps, in most cases appear on the shins. Petechiae may be single or multiple, appear on the legs.
Also, symptoms are bleeding and bleeding. Most often, bleeding gums and exposed to the nasal mucosa. The girls at puberty thrombocytopenic purpura can cause profuse uterine bleeding.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children can result in complete recovery or take a chronic form. The chronic form of the disease characterized by recurrent periods of bleeding. The main treatment of chronic forms - removal of the spleen. In the acute form of the disease with medication aimed at the destruction of antibodies that block platelets and drugs that stop bleeding. In severe form of the disease, and heavy bleeding is shown a blood transfusion.
The main measure of prevention of exacerbations in chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children is the elimination of foci of infection (caries, tonsillitis, etc.). After the transferred illness in a child should be observed for five years at a hematologist.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
This disease is characterized by increased formation of thrombus occurs at any age. It may occur after administration of vaccines, medication, accompanied by a number of other diseases (meningococcal infection, malignant tumors).
Harbingers of disease are headache, vomiting or nausea, blurred vision, severe pain in the abdomen. Bruises and petechiae may develop neurological and psychiatric disorders. There has been damage to the kidneys, enlarged liver and spleen. Thrombocytopenic purpura may last several days or several weeks. Because of vascular lesions of the heart, brain and kidneys can be fatal (20-30%). The main treatment of thrombotic purpura - plasma exchange their own plasma to the donor.
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (vascular purpura)
This disease is manifested by inflammation of blood vessels of the skin and organs of the body. The causes can be medications, viral or bacterial infection, a reaction to the introduction of some vaccines. Most often the disease occurs before the age of 20 years.
Getting the disease is accompanied by fever, rash then appears melkopyatnistaya on legs, buttocks, shoulders and joints. Also, there is pain and swelling of joints, sudden abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, may cause gastrointestinal bleeding. There is damage to the kidneys, the heart, sometimes the central nervous system.
Treatment Henoch-Schonlein purpura directed to block establishment of new immune complexes. Also prescribed hypoallergenic diet and bed rest. The illness usually lasts 2 to 4 weeks, followed by a recovery.