General characteristics of the disease
Pulmonary hypertension - a disease of unknown etiology that is in no way correlated with cardiac or pulmonary disease. Primary pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure, which in turn leads to narrowing or complete closure of the lumen of medium and small pulmonary vessels. The consequences of the disease are: the propensity to thrombosis, the emergence and development of pulmonary, heart failure.
Secondary pulmonary hypertension, the treatment to be carried out simultaneously with the treatment of the underlying disease is the result of heart diseases, lung diseases, and certain other conditions. Both forms of the disease more often affects women (7 out of 10 reported cases).
The main cause of the disease - chronic lung disease and heart disease. The exception is primary pulmonary hypertension, which develops without any apparent reason.
Pulmonary hypertension - symptoms
The earliest and most characteristic feature of pulmonary hypertension - severe shortness of breath on minor physical exertion. Often it manifests itself even at rest. Among other symptoms of the disease should be noted:
- weakness, fatigue;
- fainting, arising out of vasospasm;
- pain in the heart;
- coughing up blood;
- often observed in patients hoarseness.
Note that the usual signs of pulmonary hypertension are expressed quite weak, so the final diagnosis is made only after a full examination of the lungs and the heart of man.
The degree of pulmonary hypertension
Classification of stages of the disease, which you will find below, was proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and is now the generally accepted among physicians from around the world.
I - physical activity does not cause shortness of breath, weakness and other symptoms of the disease;
II - physical activity is limited - pulmonary hypertension in adults and children accompanied by a slight shortness of breath, weakness, pain in the chest, dizziness;
III - physical activity significantly reduced patients - pulmonary hypertension, the symptoms of which at this stage is usually pronounced, resulting in dizziness, pain in the chest, severe shortness of breath;
IV - patients can not tolerate even a small exercise, shortness of breath and is present at rest, the person feels discomfort and constant pain.
Pulmonary hypertension - Treatment and prognosis
Regardless of the degree of pulmonary hypertension, patients with anxiety symptoms should be evaluated in the cardiology department to select the therapy and to clarify the nature of the disease. During remediation patients underwent correction of cardiac activity, as well as selected special products which affect the normalization of pressure in the pulmonary artery.
Blood clotting - is another unpleasant complications, which is accompanied by pulmonary hypertension. Treatment of these changes is to correct the adverse symptoms and constant monitoring of the patient. In severe respiratory insufficiency held emergency oxygen therapy.
After being discharged from the hospital a person must follow all recommendations of your doctor and take maintenance doses of various drugs. In addition, he prescribed a special diet plan and individual physical activity, and a timetable for compulsory vaccination against influenza and lung infections.
If the primary pulmonary hypertension continues to grow, despite the use of conservative methods of treatment, physicians should consider the advisability of surgical intervention - namely, the heart-lung transplantation or lung complex.
Pulmonary hypertension in children
Situations where a newborn blood vessels constrict, for whatever reason, are very dangerous, because the limitation of blood flow through the lung tissue leads to a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the body and poses a serious threat to life. This means that pulmonary hypertension symptoms which often occur in post-term children require urgent treatment under the supervision of experienced professionals. Risk factors, provoking the emergence of the disease in children, can also be considered the child's mother uncontrolled intake of large doses of antibiotics, aspirin and indomethacin. The children of the first year of primary pulmonary hypertension is often found along with other respiratory diseases such as pneumonia or meconium aspiration syndrome.