Fibrosis in the lung is called overgrowth of connective tissue occurring under the influence of degenerative or inflammatory process. Pulmonary fibrosis leads to the violation of their elasticity and insufficient gas exchange affected areas.
Types and causes of pulmonary fibrosis
As the prevalence of the disease is divided into local and diffuse fibrosis (limited).
Lung fibrosis is a dense local portion of the lung tissue. The volume of lung lesions is reduced. In diffuse lung fibrosis are reduced in volume, compact. The normal structure of the lung in this case is lost.
Not too limited fibrosis affects the mechanical properties of the lung and gas exchange. But in diffuse disease of normal ventilation significantly reduced.
Generally, fibrosis is the result of various pulmonary diseases, namely:
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
- and invasive infections (pneumonia, including arising after syphilis, tuberculosis, and fungal infections, etc.);
- diseases resulting from exposure to the organism gases of industrial origin and aggressive dust, inhalation of various toxic substances;
- hereditary lung disease.
Often pulmonary fibrosis is the result of exposure to toxic drugs or ionizing radiation.
Symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis
Local fibrosis may be asymptomatic.
The main symptom is shortness of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, which tends to progress over time. Often, shortness of breath accompanied by a strong dry cough, aggravated by intense breathing. Other symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis include general weakness of the body, aching chest pain, weight loss, constant fatigue. If the patient struck the basal parts of the lungs, this leads to the formation of so-called Hippocratic fingers.
In the later stages of the disease in patients observed in the so-called popiskivanie light, similar in sound to the friction plug. This is especially noticeable on the breath and over the area of the front surface of the chest.
Diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis
The main method of diagnosis of this disease is an X-ray examination of the lungs. Only the study provides the most objective picture of changes in the lung tissue sclerotic character and differentiate diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis of the lung tumor lesions.
To determine the fibrosis patient is prescribed chest radiography. As an accompanying research can be assigned tomography and radiography. Of great importance in recent years in determining the condition of the lung tissue gets computed tomography.
Treatment of pulmonary fibrosis
To date, the effective methods of treatment pulmonary fibrosis exists. For local fibrosis without symptoms usually do not apply any treatment modality. If the local fibrosis is caused by the transferred destructive inflammatory diseases and flows with periodic outbreaks of infection, the patient is prescribed anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial drugs as well as measures aimed at improving the drainage of the bronchi.
Bronchoscopy study to determine whether it was appropriate for diseases surgery.
If the disease is extensive in nature and is caused by external factors, the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in the first place should be aimed at addressing the causes. If necessary, as is the treatment of respiratory failure.
Forecast fibrosis depends on various factors, including the complexity of the disease. The reduction in the size of the lung significantly heavier respiratory failure, in some cases, can cause high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries and development of pulmonary heart. The lethal outcome is possible if fibrosis complicated by secondary infection or the development of tuberculosis.
Prevention of pulmonary fibrosis
The main method of preventing pulmonary fibrosis is the early detection and adequate treatment of those diseases that contribute to its development. When working with pnevmotoksicheskimi substances must be strictly adhere to safety regulations, to carry out regular monitoring aimed at identifying pnevmotoksicheskogo action of various drugs. If the lung has any pathological changes, it is necessary to take urgent measures aimed at their elimination.