Ptosis of the upper eyelid
General characteristics of the disease
Ptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid pathological. Thus a patient partially or fully closed eye slot and accordingly the field of view. Therefore, ptosis - it's not just a cosmetic defect, but also a serious eye disease. Ptosis of the upper eyelid can lead to functional blindness.
Ptosis of the upper eyelid can be acquired or congenital. Children with congenital ptosis form of the disease is often combined with strabismus or amblyopia (lazy eye disease).
Treatment mainly ptosis surgery.
Causes of upper eyelid ptosis
The causes of ptosis include trauma or birth defects, leading to muscle weakness or impaired neuromuscular transmission of the upper eyelid. The cause of ptosis in infants can serve as an injury received during child birth, neurofibroma (tumor of the nerve sheath on the upper eyelid) or hemangioma (swelling of the blood vessels).
Among the causes of ptosis asymmetrical bilateral slowly progressive form called myasthenia gravis (autoimmune neuromuscular disease). Dystrophic myasthenia simultaneously causes of poverty and depletion of temporal facial muscles.
Oftalmoparez as one of the possible causes of ptosis in both eyes, resulting in a symmetric form of the disease and the weakness of the circular muscles of the eyes.
Causes of acute upper eyelid ptosis forms are usually neurogenic character. The omission of the century is often observed in Horner's syndrome (sympathetic innervation pathology). In this type of pathology of the upper eyelid ptosis develops only in one eye.
The cause of senile ptosis form - age-related changes in muscle century and sagging skin that has lost its elasticity over the eye slit.
Whatever the causes of ptosis, patients need to consult an ophthalmologist.
Signs of upper eyelid ptosis
The main symptom of ptosis - century omission of one or both eyes. A patient with ptosis of the upper eyelid can not completely close the eye, and this leads to visual fatigue and irritation of the eye tissue.
Patients with ptosis of the upper eyelid and blink hard. Trying to expand the field of view, they threw his head back. Attempts to raise the lid arms can lead to infection of the patient's eye. Congenital ptosis in children often occurs against the backdrop of strabismus, amblyopia, or diplopia (double vision).
Diagnosis and treatment of upper eyelid ptosis
Diagnosis of ptosis is easy. For the diagnosis of measured height of the century, tested symmetry and fullness of movement of the upper eyelids of both eyes.
Treatment of upper eyelid ptosis - surgical. Standard surgery for ptosis - the shortening of the century by forming on it the so-called dublication levator. To do this century patient in need of treatment ptosis, produced three U-shaped seam.
This type of surgery for ptosis can not be conducted in patients with a congenital form of the disease, as in this case, the patient is usually very thin layer of muscle century. Treatment of upper eyelid ptosis with levator overlaying dublication often leads to the eruption of sutures and relapse.
An alternative surgery for ptosis of the upper eyelid - formation technique dublication tarzoorbitalnoy fascia. From the above mentioned method of treatment of ptosis is it different way to enhance crease. In addition to the three U-shaped seam when the operation involves the use of ptosis diathermocoagulation (cautery
diathermic current) shell muscles of the upper eyelid.
Using diathermocoagulation in treating ptosis of the upper eyelid surgery reduces trauma and improve the subsequent scarring of muscle century and avoid the use of grafts during surgical correction of pathology.
Surgical treatment of ptosis of the upper eyelid is performed under local anesthesia. Exceptions are children: during operations when ptosis in children is recommended to use general anesthesia.