General characteristics of the disease
Prolactinoma - a type of benign tumor of the pituitary gland. Prolaktinomy malignant etiology occur only rarely. Prolactinomas causes an increase in the size of the pituitary gland, and increased production of the hormone prolactin in the body (hence the name of the disease).
Prolactinoma - one of the most common types of tumors. A post-mortem brain autopsy has identified the presence of prolactinoma pituitary gland in 25% of patients. In a quarter of cases, the life of the tumor was not behaving aggressively and did not affect the secretion of hormones. More 40% of cases because of the small size of the tumor symptoms of prolactinoma were not expressed. Typically, the size of these tumors did not exceed 3mm.
Only the remaining 35% of people diagnosed with the disease to the pituitary gland prolactinoma was characterized by rapid tumor growth and the rapid increase in the size of the pituitary gland. Reasons for provoking in some cases aggressiveness prolactinoma pituitary medicine is still not known.
Symptoms of a prolactinoma
The normal level of prolactin in women increases during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is from this hormone affects the quality of lactation.
When pathological sverhsekretsii prolactin caused by rising pituitary prolactinoma, a woman develops hyperprolactinemia.
Among the symptoms of prolactinoma called menstrual irregularities. In patients with a pituitary prolactinoma possible:
- oligomenorrhea (short duration of menstrual bleeding).
- opsomenoreya (infrequent menstruation a cycle of 35 days or more)
- as well as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation).
Violations of the menstrual cycle when provoked abnormalities prolaktinome pituitary production of luteinizing hormone and follicle caused by high levels of prolactin in the body.
Another important symptom of prolactinoma in women - galactorrhea, or the milk from breast glands. This phenomenon is caused by a natural physiological effect: increased prolactin levels, and a woman's breast is preparing for lactation. Galactorrhea does not lead to cancer of the breast, but increases the risk of mastitis (a benign overgrowth of breast tissue).
Patients with pituitary prolactinomas also often complain of headaches. This symptom prolactinomas associated with impaired hormonal balance in women.
In men, the symptoms of a prolactinoma include gynecomastia (enlargement of the breast). Prolactin inhibits the production of the male hormone testosterone. Therefore, another clear symptom of prolactinoma acts decreased libido, until the development of impotence. Prolactinoma pituitary gland in men can also lead to infertility, and particularly large tumors cause vision problems.
In male patients more often prolaktinomy large sizes. Most women are diagnosed pituitary microadenomas.
Diagnosis of prolactinoma
Determine the level of prolactin in the body can be based on blood samples. Visualization prolactinoma pituitary occurs via contrast magnetic resonance imaging. When tumors larger sizes better outline prolaktinomy provides a commuter tomography scan of the brain.
Treatment of prolactinomas can be conservative and surgical. For small amounts of tumor prolactinoma treatment begins with conservative therapy. For drugs that reduce the secretion of prolactin, include: Parlodel, levodopa, Lisuride, Peritol, Lergotril etc. Conservative treatment of prolactinomas small dimensions efficiently in 85% of cases.
When ineffective treatment prolaktinomy conservative methods recommended that a beam irradiation and subsequent microsurgical removal of pituitary tumors. Results of surgical treatment of prolactinomas is usually good. Within 2-3 months after the removal of the tumor prolactin level returns to normal. In women, this time restored the menstrual cycle, in men increases libido and improves the quality of erections.