Brief description of the disease
Pre-eclampsia - a pathological condition during pregnancy that manifests the appearance of edema, hypertension and proteinuria (protein in the urine). Typically, the disease develops in the second and third trimester, but sometimes earlier. According to statistics, the incidence of the disease in recent years has increased from 7 to 20%.
Preeclampsia is a disease that is evidence of serious violations in the mother's body, so pregnant needs to mandatory testing and carrying out the necessary treatment. Symptoms disrupt the normal functioning of the placenta, so that the fetus does not get enough nutrients and oxygen, which entails the development of hypoxia and malnutrition.
Symptoms of preeclampsia
The main symptoms include high blood pressure, protein in the urine, edema, weight gain due to fluid retention, headaches, abdominal pain, reducing the required amount of urine, dizziness, blurred vision, nausea and vomiting, changes in reflexes.
Symptomatology preeclampsia depends on its extent. The most severe form of the disease called eclampsia, in addition to the above symptoms, characterized by seizures. Eclampsia requires immediate intervention of health workers and provide timely assistance as may be dangerous to health and life-threatening complications.
The degree of pre-eclampsia
There are three degrees of preeclampsia.
1. Mild (mild preeclampsia) - is characterized by increased pressure of not higher than 150 / 90mm Hg. Art., proteinuria up to 1 g / l. There is edema of the lower extremities. The platelet count in the blood at least 180h109 / L, creatinine - 100 micromolar.
Easy pre-eclampsia may be asymptomatic, not allowing the expectant mother to suspect the onset of the disease. So do not belittle the importance of screening and passing tests throughout pregnancy. This will help the doctor to recognize the signs of preeclampsia at an early stage and to take timely corrective measures to eliminate them.
2. The average degree of pre-eclampsia - there is an increase in blood pressure up to 170/110 mm Hg. v., urine protein over 5g / L, platelet count ranges from 150 to 180h109 / l, creatinine from 100 to 300 mmol / l.
3. Severe pre-eclampsia - characterized by an increase in pressure above 170/110 mm Hg. Art., a protein in the urine exceeds the mark of 5g / L, creatinine 300 umol / L. A headache in the back of the head and forehead, the violation of which is shown flashing flies, the pain in his right side due to the swelling of the liver. Severe pre-eclampsia can go into eclampsia - one of the most dangerous forms of preeclampsia, which is characterized by seizures. Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is a disease that can pose a threat to the health and life of the mother and child.
Causes of pre-eclampsia
The exact cause of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is not fully known. There are certain assumptions, which include: poor maternal nutrition, the presence of high levels in the body fat, as well as inadequate blood flow to the uterus. There are certain risk factors for this disease.
Risk factors for preeclampsia
Most often the disease develops in the first pregnancy in young women and in pregnant women who are over forty years old. A risk factor can act hypertension was observed in women before pregnancy, preeclampsia during a previous pregnancy, excess weight, pre-eclampsia in the mother or sister. The risk group includes women who have had multiple pregnancies, kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes.
Treatment of pre-eclampsia
Tactics of treatment of preeclampsia depends on the severity of the disease and the maturity of the fetus.
Easy pre-eclampsia requires compliance with bed rest at home or in a hospital. In particular, doctors recommend to spend time lying on his back. This is to some extent reduces blood pressure. Carry out continuous monitoring of the mother and child with a mandatory blood pressure measurement, weighing, ultrasonography and fetal cardiotocography, counting perturbations. With an increase in the dynamics of the disease used medication. To this difficult period to protect themselves from household chores, invite housekeeper. Take advantage of this service agency with a good reputation, such as http://www.bianco.ru/, and focus on the expectation of future baby.
For the treatment of pre-eclampsia magnesium sulfate is used, which prevents the development of eclampsia, as well as antihypertensive therapy, which is aimed at lowering blood pressure. In the absence of positive dynamics of the increase of the applied treatment and symptoms carried the artificial induction of labor or caesarean section.