Polycystic ovaries - is quite common hormonal disorder in women, leading to infertility. The disorder is characterized by absence or irregular ovulation at a specific phase of the cycle. This is due to the increase in the ovaries and the content of a large number of small undeveloped follicles, fluid-filled, which are called cysts. Hormonal imbalances that triggered the disease, leading to various external and internal disorders of the female body.
Causes of polycystic ovary
The exact cause of polycystic ovaries are still unknown, but it is clear that in this disease occurs in the female body to develop excessive amounts of androgens (male hormones). This is due to high levels of insulin in the blood, to which the body reacts by excessive production of androgens. This fact leads to an imbalance of male and female hormones than rare and is caused by ovulation or lack of it at all. Among the most common causes of polycystic ovaries are the following:
- Nervous stress and emotional stress;
- Respiratory diseases (particularly angina);
- Climate Change.
The most common causes of polycystic ovarian dysfunction are the following bodies:
- Thyroid cancer;
Timely detection of the causes of polycystic ovaries, and its treatment helps to avoid various complications, which are characteristic of the disease. It should be noted that they include certain cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
The symptoms of polycystic ovary
Clinically, polycystic ovary syndrome manifests itself in different ways depending on the cause. However, there are specific signs of the disease, which can be judged on its presence in women:
- The absence or irregular menstruation (sometimes delayed up to 35 days);
- Increased hair growth is most often on the face, chest and stomach area, at least - on the back, groin, hands and feet;
- Uterine bleeding;
- Acne and acne;
- The thin hair or hair loss;
- Obesity in the hips and waist, and the overall increase in body weight;
- High blood pressure;
- Increased education and ovarian cysts in them;
- Miscarriage or infertility.
In some cases, a symptom of polycystic ovary can also act as a darkening of the skin on the neck, in the armpits, on the inside of the thighs, groin, under the breasts. Such a phenomenon in medicine is called Acanthosis nigricans.
In addition, certain symptoms of polycystic ovarian similar to diabetes such features as increased urination, weight gain, chronic skin infections and vaginal candidiasis or thrush.
At the same time it can be argued that the most faithful are symptoms of polycystic ovarian menstrual irregularities or lack of menstruation in general, as well as the enlargement of the ovaries, which is often detected by ultrasound examination.
Usually the disease develops during puberty or specifically with the onset of menses. The interval between periods, which is more than 35 days, or the amount of menstruation at least 8 times a year are already talking of a serious violation of the female body. If such deviations are observed, the likelihood of developing polycystic ovary increases.
Treatment of polycystic ovary
To date, treatment of polycystic ovaries in two ways: conservative and operative. The first method involves the use of a variety of hormones that stimulate the growth and development of one or more mature follicles in the ovaries, thereby causing ovulation. The efficacy of the conservative method is about 50%.
The second method for the treatment of polycystic ovarian practiced since the beginning of the century and is a surgery on the ovaries, which allows for ovulation (the efficiency is about 90%) and the restoration of fertility (occurs in 70% of cases).
The conservative method is aimed at eliminating a woman's clinical manifestations of disease. In some cases, the treatment of polycystic ovary assigned oral contraceptive use during 2-3 months, which possess antiandrogenic properties. During this period the work of the ovaries is the norm, and ovulation is restored. Thus, the question of whether to become pregnant while polycystic ovaries may have a positive response. Such a method is used for women who are not planning a pregnancy because it eliminates hormonal disorders in general.
If this method proves to be ineffective, then carried out a common methodology aimed at stimulating ovulation. The course lasts from 4 to six months. It involves the use of certain hormones in the first phase of the cycle, then a stimulant of ovulation during the development of the follicle and then a variety of drugs to sustain its function. In the treatment of polycystic ovary frequently used drugs for weight loss. In some cases, it is weight loss helps restore ovulation.
Operative treatment of the disease is based on the destruction or removal of the ovary, which synthesizes androgens. It should be noted that the effect in this process is quite short, because the ovary is quickly restored. Therefore, if such an operation had been carried out, with polycystic ovaries can become pregnant within 4-5 months until the recovery has not occurred.
This method is carried out using a wedge resection or laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery. In the first case, a small portion is removed ovaries on both sides, ovulation is recovered in 85% of cases. The second method is considered more lenient, since it just makes ovarian incision in several places. This greatly reduces the risk of pelvic adhesions.