The literal translation of the name of the disease, "Poliomyelitis" sounds like "a gray cord" that is, with the infectious disease pathogen, which is an enterovirus, especially penetrates into the gray matter of the spinal cord and motor nuclei of the brain stem.
Polio is also called the disease Heine Medina, children's spinal paralysis, acute epidemic polio, spinal infantile paralysis, infantile paralysis epidemic. As the name implies, at risk are children under the age of seven. Moved disease at a young age can significantly reduce the quality of life in the future, as one of the most severe complications of polio is a central nervous system characterized by the development of flaccid paresis and paralysis.
In some cases, the disease is in the erased or asymptomatic. A person can be a carrier of the virus, releasing it into the environment with feces and secretions from the nose and at the same time feel completely healthy. Meanwhile susceptibility to polio is quite high, which is fraught with the rapid spread of the disease among children.
Although it is believed that polio is a disease of people living in unsanitary conditions, there are cases of the epidemic, regardless of the state of hygiene in the places where the population is not immune to this serious illness. There seasonal occurrence of polio, the peak incidence occurs in summer and autumn.
Types and symptoms of polio
On average, from the beginning of infection to onset of symptoms takes 7-12 days. The virus enters the human alimentary (food) route via contaminated food and water. Initially, it is populated in the gastro-intestinal tract, and only then is absorbed into the bloodstream. Polio can cause mild or severe.
Depending on the localization process and the possibility of polio paralysis is divided into two forms, which in turn are divided into several types More:
a) non-paralytic polio. This form is used in most cases.
- Abortive when the disease is the type of acute respiratory diseases or the flu. The patient complained of a deterioration of health, weakness, fatigue, headache and fever. Sometimes there is a small bowel dysfunction, hyperemia throat, catarrhal phenomena from the upper respiratory tract. Recovery occurs after 3-5 days.
- Meningeal. The virus affects the serous membranes of the brain, so polio occurs in the form of serous meningitis. The most typical complaints for this form of the disease are fever, vomiting, sudden headaches and leg pains. Truly meningeal symptoms such as stiff neck, expressed slightly. The disease disappeared almost without trace after 3-4 weeks after the start.
b) Paralytic poliomyelitis. It is developing quite rare, but usually leads to disruption of the many functions of the body and, accordingly, to disability:
- Spinal. Weakness and pain in the muscles gradually replaced by paralysis, both general and partial. The defeat of the muscles in this form of polio can be symmetrical, but occurs paralysis of certain muscle groups throughout the body.
- Bulbar. The danger of this type of polio is to develop paralysis of the respiratory system, in severe cases, leads to death of the patient.
- Pontin. For this type of polio is characterized by the development of paresis and paralysis of the facial nerve, in which there is a partial or complete loss of facial movements.
- Mixed, which is characterized by a combination of all kinds of symptoms of paralytic polio.
Treatment of polio
Until now, the specific treatment of polio exists. The fight against the disease is to perform symptomatic therapy in the hospital. To prevent the development of bone and joint complications predparaliticheskoy and paralytic stage patients shows absolute calm. Also at this time applied analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins, tranquilizers. When respiratory paralysis connected ventilator.
In addition to the recovery period of drug therapy used physiotherapy, massage and physiotherapy. In addition, the recommended treatment in orthopedics. In the future, patients who have had polio, shows a regular spa treatment. It is best to choose a place for rest and treatment, where there is a hydro-massage treatments, spa pools & spas.
Prevention of polio
The best prevention of polio and complications after a vaccination, after which created a lifelong immunity to the three main viruses that cause disease.
Vaccinations against polio begin to do with the age of three. Use oral and inactivated vaccines. In the first case, the administration is orally, in the second - by injection.
In the period up to six months for a total babe gets three cottages specific vaccine. In order to maintain an acceptable level of immune status revaccination. Terms of repeated administration of the vaccine depends on its forms: oral vaccine given at the age of 18 and 20 months, then in 14 years, while boosting the inactivated polio vaccine carried out a year after the complete vaccination and thereafter every five to ten years.
It allowed a one-time administration of a DTP and polio, but with different syringes and at different places.
In general, vaccination against polio is well tolerated, only in some cases there is soreness at the injection site, mild hyperemia, low body temperature and a small seal. Having given the oral vaccine may cause abdominal pain, loose stools, and general malaise. All these things very quickly and completely tested, do not require special treatment.
It is undesirable to abandon the holding vaccination against poliomyelitis, arguing that vaccination may develop complications and infection. Keep in mind that even if the child is sick, then grafted in accordance with the vaccination schedule is much easier to transfer the disease without developing severe complications such as paralysis of polio.