General characteristics of the disease
Under the pneumothorax is meant the accumulation of air in the pleural cavity. There are two forms of the disease: an open pneumothorax first aid for which should be provided immediately, and closed pneumothorax. Treatment of the latter is held in a hospital. When you open the form air enters the pleural space from the outside. These situations, usually folded by breakage of the thorax. Closed pneumothorax associated with the arrival of the air inside (with minor or pleura).
We note that today the most widely spontaneous pneumothorax. He had unrelated to mechanical injuries of the chest and in the body occurs due to injury or as a complication of the treatment modality.
Pneumothorax - Causes of disease
- closed chest injuries - fractures or lung bronchi, violation of the integrity of light fragments of ribs;
- iatrogenic damage - caused by inappropriate conducted intercostal nerve blockade, trying to subclavian vein catheterization, acupuncture stellate ganglion, and other injuries of the lungs;
- open pneumothorax caused by penetrating wounds of the chest cavity to damage the integrity of the lungs;
- nonspecific pneumothorax - a consequence of a breakthrough lung abscess, spontaneous rupture of the esophagus, regional intraalveolar increasing pressure;
- gap cavity and breakthroughs cheesy foci lead to TB pneumothorax.
In some cases, the flow of air into the pleural cavity is provided by artificial means. This need arises, for example, in the differential diagnosis of chest wall or thoracoscopy.
Pneumothorax - symptoms
- shortness of breath, chest pain, increasing deep breathing;
- when viewed from the wounds heard the distinctive sound of the suction air;
- significant worsening of the human condition, shortness of breath, his face becomes cyanotic hue;
- Asymmetric chest movement;
- open pneumothorax is accompanied by severe pain, so wounded usually falls on the right side and presses her hands to the wound;
- swelling of the neck veins, fast but weak pulse, hypotension and other circulatory disorders.
Pneumothorax - Treatment and prognosis
Help with pneumothorax should be immediate, because it affects a person's life. This is especially true in cases where air enters the pleural space from the outside. Open pneumothorax requires urgent transfer to a closed mold. To do this, the patient impose a temporary bandage sealed. In the absence of special medical dressing materials as possible to use several layers of cheesecloth usual, over which is superimposed compress paper or oilcloth. After the delivery of the patient to the hospital immediately conducted: thoracostomy, thoracotomy, revision and light debridement.
Spontaneous pneumothorax, the causes of which are not related to mechanical injuries of the chest, also refers to a life-threatening condition and requires mandatory hospitalization. If the disease is not clear-cut violation of the respiratory function, help with pneumothorax is in compliance with bed rest and the restriction of freedom of movement. When coughing patient is prescribed antitussives.
In all other cases, a more active tactics. The patient was prescribed cardiac glycosides, inhalation of oxygen, puncture the pleural cavity to remove fluid and air. If these measures do not contribute to the positive dynamics, doctors are forced to resort to surgery. Surgical treatment involves suturing the wound formed in the lung, removing the parietal hymen, booking pathologically altered tissue. If spontaneous pneumothorax is accompanied by infectious origin, the patient is further administered antibacterial treatment.
To prevent recurrence of the disease preventive measures are used, in which the patient is administered irritants into the pleural cavity (glucose solution of silver nitrate, talc).
Pneumothorax, treatment is carried out promptly and in compliance with the fundamental principles, in most cases does not cause irreversible effects, that is, the person is able to work and maintains a high quality of life. In secondary pneumothorax and severe disease prognosis is based on the totality of all relevant factors, in particular, the nature and severity of the underlying disease.