The lower airways are covered with a protective sheath - the pleura. In cases where it affects the inflammatory process, developed pleurisy. Normally, the surface of the pleural sheets shiny and slippery. During the illness, it becomes sticky and ceases to perform its protective function. Pleurisy may provoke the development of viruses, bacteria and various allergens.
Sometimes pleurisy is a separate disease, but the disease often develops in response to existing inflammation in the lung tumors of different etiology, or personal injury. As a rule, joined pleurisy exacerbates the disease, and thus contributes to the deterioration of the patient. Fertile ground for the development of pleurisy are hypothermia, stress, fatigue, intolerance to drugs, malnutrition.
Regardless of the fact that the impetus for the development of pleurisy in the human body is disturbed metabolism and breathing process.
Forms and types of pleurisy
Depending on the presence or absence of fluid distinguish fibrinous (dry) and exudative (exudative) pleurisy.
In the dry pleurisy fluid in the pleura is not on its surface acts fibrin. Basically, this form precedes development of exudative pleurisy. Dry pleurisy is often a secondary disease in many diseases of the lower respiratory tract and hilar lymph nodes, cancer, rheumatism, collagen and certain viral infections.
Pleural effusion is characterized by the presence of fluid in the pleural cavity. In her character isolated seroplastic, purulent, hemorrhagic, or mixed chylous pleurisy. The resulting liquid of unknown origin called or noninflammatory effusions.
Experts identify another form of the disease, in which accumulates in the pleural cavity of the pus. In this case we speak of a purulent pleurisy.
Often, in severe cases, or in the absence of proper treatment of one form of the disease may be replaced by another.
Depending on the causes of the inflammation, pleurisy divided into aseptic (the disease develops as a result of trauma or lung cancer) and infection (pathogens are pathogens).
And exudative pleurisy purulent form may be complicated by pneumothorax, in which there is penetration of air in the pleural cavity. This condition requires immediate medical attention in a hospital.
Symptoms of pleurisy
Common symptoms for all forms of pleurisy is chest pain, aggravated by deep breathing, talking or coughing, shortness of breath, malaise, cough, compulsive, weakness, fever, involuntary body position.
In the dry pleurisy these symptoms align pleural rub while listening stethoscope. When uncomplicated illness recovery occurs in an average of 7-10 days.
Pleural effusion is characterized by the appearance of a feeling of heaviness in one half of the body where there is an inflammatory process, nasolabial triangle cyanosis and jugular veins. The patient's condition was more severe signs of intoxication are more pronounced. Depending on the causes of pleurisy, the duration of the disease varies from one to two months.
By the aforementioned symptoms of pleurisy when purulent form of joining the following: temperature rise to significant numbers, loss of appetite, skin becomes sallow yellow color, growing intoxication, there is bad breath. Treatment, as well as subsequent rehabilitation takes a long time.
Recently increased incidence of tuberculous pleurisy, which is found in all forms: fibrous, exudative and purulent.
Almost half of the dry pleurisy indicates that the body takes the form of a latent tuberculosis. By itself, pleural tuberculosis is quite rare, mostly fibrous pleurisy is a response to tuberculosis lymph nodes or lungs.
Tuberculous pleurisy, depending on the disease and its features are divided into three types: perifocal, and actually allergic pleural tuberculosis.
Perifocal form of tuberculous pleurisy develops over the lesion, where inflammation of the pleura and the area covered. Pleurisy can be fibrous and exudate, the amount of liquid can be different. TB germs are in the effusion in this form of practically sown. Treatment long, often relapse.
Allergic pleurisy is a response to the proliferation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans. The disease acute, fluid in the pleural cavity accumulates a significant amount. Absorption liquid occurs within three to four weeks.
Symptoms of pleurisy in tuberculous lesions similar to those that occur with inflammation of the pleura other etiologies.
Treatment of pleurisy
Treatment with any form of pleurisy have to be complex. The first step is to focus efforts on the elimination of the main inflammatory process, which served as the starting point for this disease. Treatment of pleurisy is conducted on several fronts: pain relief, acceleration of resorption of effusion, prevention of complications.
The patient was prescribed analgesics, anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, drugs to combat cough (eg Mucosolvan syrup), and allergic reactions. If tuberculous pleurisy carried specific therapy anti-TB drugs. When pleurisy resulting lung tumor or hilar lymph nodes, chemotherapy is appointed. Corticosteroids are used in collagen diseases.
When a large amount of fluid in the pleural cavity is shown holding a puncture with the purpose and content extraction injection of drugs directly into the cavity.
The rehabilitation period is assigned breathing exercises, physical therapy, restorative therapy.
Prevention of pleurisy
The main emphasis in the prevention of pleurisy is on hardening, good nutrition, a healthy lifestyle. Also, experts recommend promptly seek treatment for respiratory diseases, kidney, cardio - vascular system.