Brief description of the disease
Pericarditis - an inflammation of the pericardium. Sometimes acute and chronic pericarditis and pericardial effusion, and dry.
Dry acute pericarditis - an independent disease, during which benign and ends after one or two months, and usually without complications.
Pericardial effusion often occurs in subacute and chronic phase disease accompanied by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity.
The causes of the disease
Pericarditis occurs because of infections caused by bacteria, tubercle bacilli, rickettsia, fungi, viruses, protozoa, due to rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, heart attack, injury (including radiotherapy, postoperative), tumors, uremia, systemic lupus erythematosus due to lack of vitamin C, B1.
According to statistics, most disease arises against autoimmune diseases, allergies.
Symptoms of pericarditis
Pericarditis Symptoms depend on the stage of the disease, the nature of the liquid contained in the pericardium, its quantity, its rate of accumulation.
In the acute form of the disease the patient complains of pain in the heart, which are felt over near the apex of the heart or at the bottom of the sternum. Pain may be given in the left arm, neck, left shoulder, the epigastric region, in character, they aching, dull and strong. These symptoms resemble the clinical picture of pericarditis or myocardial pleurisy, the patient complains of heaviness, discomfort in the heart. Such heart pain - the main symptom of dry pericarditis.
When there is exudate (fluid), its rapid accumulation in the pericardium causes shortness of breath. Particularly intensified shortness of breath, when the patient takes a horizontal position and it is accompanied by a dry cough. If irritated phrenic nerve to the symptoms of pericarditis added vomiting.
Pericardial effusion accompanied by a decrease, often disappearing apex beat of the heart - it is caused by a large amount of fluid in the pericardium. There is a predisposition to increased cardiac dullness (area of the chest, which when tapped (percussion) in a special sound is determined by the area of the heart). Noticed swelling of veins in the neck.
When pericardial effusion heart Tops sharply muted developing sinus tachycardia. When you can hear the effusion pericardial rub.
Diagnosis of the disease
Acute pericarditis is determined to start on common symptoms: low-grade temperature, leukocytosis with a left shift, increased ESR. Spend X-ray examination, which revealed effusion, and do an ECG.
Treatment of pericarditis
Begin treatment of pericarditis in the acute phase with intravenous administration of 2ml solution dipyrone 50% or 2 ml solution promedola 2% (under the skin or intravenously), or 1-2ml solution pantopon 2%. The patient is also prescribed to inhale a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Good results in the treatment of pericarditis provide anti-inflammatory drugs - salicylates, corticosteroids, etc.
Sometimes, at the stage of first aid to the patient may be necessary to conduct puncture pericardium and removing 150-200ml liquid. If the cavity was pus, the patient must enter penicillin.
Treating pericarditis cardiac glycosides it is considered in this case ineffective.
Prevention of disease
Prevention of pericarditis is a disease prevention that it can provoke: rheumatism, pneumonia, heart attacks, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, histoplasmosis, amebiasis, lung cancer or breast, scleroderma, melanoma, sarcoidosis, lymphoma, amyloidosis, leukemia, coccidioidomycosis, Wegener's granulomatosis. If these diseases do occur, you should take care of their timely and adequate treatment.