Paraurethral cyst - a closed cystic formation filled with secret localized in the mouth
urethra, at least in the channel.
Skene's glands (small vestibular gland paraurethral glands) - gland, located in the area of the external opening of the urethra in the anterior wall of the vagina around the spongy body of the urethra. These glands produce secretion, moisturizing mucous urethra. In some cases, the mouth of the Skene's glands are narrowed, closed, clogged, and the interior of the gland is filled with secret produced by stretching its walls and forming paraurethral cyst.
Paraurethral cyst in the majority of cases are diagnosed in women of childbearing age, which is associated with exposure to significant changes in the glands of the various periods of a woman's life. During pregnancy, women observed hypertrophy of glands in the postpartum period there is an involution, menopause is characterized by atrophy of the paraurethral glands.
Paraurethral cyst is a small tumor formation rounded, located mainly in the external opening of the urethra, at least in depth from the surface of tissue, which significantly complicates the diagnosis of tumors. Paraurethral cyst is palpable from the vagina, with pressure can be released slimy liquid. When complications of cystic formation of infectious-inflammatory process may be a purulent discharge. Uncomplicated paraurethral cyst is characterized by an elastic consistency, lack of inflamed tissues in the cystic formation.
There are two types of paraurethral cysts:
- Skinievy paraurethral cysts - cystic formation resulting from the blockage of the small glands located around the urethra;
- Cysts Gartnerovogo passage - cysts arising from abnormal development of the female urogenital system. In rare cases, germ ducts between the wall of the urethra and vagina are not overgrown, which leads to accumulation of fluid therein and the formation of cysts.
Paraurethral cyst of any type does not regress, and does not resolve on their own. The longer there is a cyst in the urethra or in his run-up, the more likely the development of inflammation and festering. Paraurethral cysts are favorable conditions for the accumulation of stagnant urine and bacterial growth. Inflammation paraurethral cysts can lead to an abscess, which opened into the urethra with subsequent development of a diverticulum.
Diagnosis and symptoms of paraurethral cysts
Uncomplicated paraurethral cyst is usually asymptomatic, without causing discomfort to the patient, while remaining unnoticed for a long time. When asymptomatic lacunar disease cysts are found only during routine gynecological or urological examination. Paraurethral cyst in women may either bulge of the front wall of the vagina, or localized in the interior of the small labia.
The depth of the paraurethral cysts are diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Diagnosis is made by endoscopy of the urethra (uretrotsistoskopiya), which allows you to determine the location and size of education.
Also, for the diagnosis of paraurethral cysts the method of ultrasonic study conducted intracavitary probe.
paraurethral cyst with other illnesses (vaginal cysts, tumors of the anterior vaginal wall, diverticula) conducted a series of tests (urinalysis, bacterial urine culture, urine cytology).
When you reach a considerable size cyst patients may disturb the following symptoms:
- Discomfort when walking, sexual intercourse;
- Education swelling, swelling in the urethra;
- Violation of urination, dysuria;
- Pain, burning sensation in the field of education;
- Minor pus;
- General symptoms characteristic of the inflammatory process;
- Frequent urination;
- Bursting feeling in the formation of cysts;
- Urination accompanied by sharp pains;
- urinary incontinence.
Paraurethral cyst may be complicated by infectious-inflammatory process, in which there is festering cysts, which leads to the appearance of purulent discharge.
Causes of paraurethral cysts
Education paraurethral cysts associated both with various inflammatory processes of the genitourinary system (urethritis, also caused by infections, sexually transmitted diseases), and with microtraumas urethra (by rough sexual intercourse, labor). In rare cases, the paraurethral cyst may be congenital.
Also, the causes of paraurethral cysts include the use of various means of personal hygiene by washing, resulting in obstruction of the excretory duct paraurethral glands. Immunosuppression is another cause of paraurethral cysts.
Methods of treatment of paraurethral cysts: the operation, medication
In the diagnosis of paraurethral cyst important step is to determine the causes of the formation of tumors. In identifying the causes of cystic formation of the patient is assigned to an integrated therapy that combines conservative methods (drug therapy aimed at eliminating inflammation, infection) and radical (involving removal of paraurethral cyst). Opening paraurethral cysts provides only a temporary effect, since plugging the mouth of the gland, a cyst is formed again.
It is believed that the diagnosis of paraurethral cyst, surgery is the only correct and effective way to treat tumors. When paraurethral cyst surgery can be performed by various methods, with preference given to complete excision of cystic formation. Depending on the type of paraurethral cyst surgery can be performed under local anesthesia or under general anesthesia.
Removing paraurethral cysts: predictions, risks
Removing paraurethral cysts involves certain risks and complications, the risk of which depends on the complexity of the paraurethral cyst (a complication of infectious-inflammatory process, the size, the localization of education), and on the experience of the surgeon. Among the major complications and risks associated with the removal of paraurethral cysts release:
- Stricture (narrowing, often accompanied by inflammation) of the urethra;
- Recurrence of education;
- The development of urethral pain syndrome;
- Urethra-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas;
- Bleeding of varying intensity;
- Recurrent infections.