What is parainfluenza and why it occurs?
Parainfluenza - an infectious disease that affects the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, accompanied by a moderate intoxication of the body and can lead to epidemics. The infectious agent is a parainfluenza virus and the source of infection - a sick man.
Parainfluenza Infected people are a danger to others during the incubation period and the acute phase of the disease. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets, so parainfluenza in children beginning to develop as a direct contact with a sick person, and by inhalation of air, which contains pathogens. Parainfluenza affects mainly children under the age of 7 years and lead to outbreaks of diseases that cover most of the children's collective.
The mechanism of infection
With saliva droplets or dust particles parainfluenza virus reaches the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. There it is deposited on the upper epithelium sinuses and throat and enters directly into the cells. Parainfluenza virus has the ability to completely destroy epitalialnye cells with the further development of the inflammatory process and the manifestation of general toxic symptoms (fatigue, headache, fever, loss of appetite).
As the progression of parainfluenza immune system continues to weaken. This leads to activation of their own appearance and pathogenic microflora secondary infections. Parainfluenza being treated properly, the immune system develops, however, it is short-lived. Antibodies quickly lose their protective qualities, so a child can get sick parainfluenza two or more times a year. However, even a slight immunity prevents the development of severe forms of the disease, which is particularly important in the case of children, whose body is unable to provide decent resistance to various diseases.
The incubation period of the disease lasts about a week. After that, the patient shows symptoms of acute parainfluenza:
- fever (peaks at 2-3 days of disease);
- nasal congestion;
- malaise, weakness;
- decreased appetite;
The general condition of the patient is satisfactory. If symptoms of intoxication are usually parainfluenza are mild, so come to the fore epithelial lesions of the upper respiratory tract, which serve as the basis for a correct diagnosis. Patients concerned: a dry, hacking cough, nasal congestion, throat soreness, hoarseness. In addition, parainfluenza in children causes swelling of the tonsils and redness of the throat.
There are mild, moderate and severe parainfluenza. The last is very rare, but it leads to numerous complications: pneumonia, tonsillitis, sinusitis, chest pain, CNS, stenosis syndrome Krupa. The child becomes restless, he observed cyanotic fingertips and expressed tachycardia. Heavy parainfluenza, which started treatment too late, can go to the most dangerous phase - asphyxia, in which the pale skin, the body temperature is greatly reduced, and there are serious problems with breathing. During this period the urgent resuscitation, or the patient may die.
Parainfluenza in children under the age of 1 year, has oligosymptomatic character. At the same time up to 6 months, the child has the innate immunity received from the mother, so is rarely sick and without complications. After six months, the baby becomes sensitive to parainfluenza and its complications, including croup syndrome.
In the treatment of parainfluenza is necessary to ensure bed rest, rest, drink plenty of liquids and constant monitoring of their health. For the treatment of parainfluenza used antivirals (tsikloferon, arbidol, viferon). To reduce the temperature recommended antipyretic drugs. Antimicrobial agents should be used when connecting secondary infections. Patients with serious complications, such as the syndrome of croup, be hospitalized, where they will receive specialized medical care.
Remember also that self-medicate very dangerous. Parainfluenza in children can lead to serious consequences, so you must show the child's doctor, who will choose the most safe products and to observe the changes of the baby.
There are no specific preventive measures parainfluenza there. Parents need to isolate the sick child from the healthy children, ventilate the room regularly wet cleaning. When dealing with a patient parainfluenza desirable to use a gauze bandage, and the furniture and other household items in his room to handle using disinfectants.