Ovarian fibroma - a benign tumor of the ovary. In gynecology, ovarian fibroma occurs in about 10% of all benign tumors of the ovary. It happens that fibroids occur in the period of puberty, but it mainly affects women during pre-menopause and menopause, ie, aged 40 to 60 years.
Externally, ovarian fibroma is a circular formation with nodular or smooth surface, reaching 10-12 cm in size. If there pseudovoid, the consistency fibroids tightly-elastic, the deposition of calcium salts fibroma hard, and when pronounced swelling - mild. Mostly ovarian fibroma mobile and one-sided, a leg. If we consider the formation on the cut, it has a white or grayish-white color, with a small amount of blood vessels. If the tumor is a woman there a long time, it may have hemorrhage, foci of necrosis and ischemia. Histologically, fibroids consists of bundles of spindle-shaped cells of the connective tissue, are intertwined in different directions.
Forms of ovarian fibroma
There are two forms of ovarian fibroma:
- Delimited, when the tumor has a distinct capsule that separates it from the ovarian tissue;
- Diffuse, when the ovary is completely amazed.
Often, fibroids, ovarian cysts and include swollen. Typically, the tumor grows slowly, but degenerative changes in its growth can be accelerated significantly. Border state fibroids considered strengthening its mitotic activity of low malignant potential.
If fibroma has a small size, usually no effect on ovarian function it does not have and does not interfere to pregnancy and childbearing prosperous. Cell ovarian fibroma may recur, especially if during surgery it was damaged capsule. Complications include tumor necrosis torsion legs, the possibility of malignancy and festering tumor.
The main causes of ovarian fibroma
It is difficult to establish the exact causes of ovarian fibroids, but it is known that the risk factor is the poor woman's hormones, including as a result of endocrine disorders (violation of reproductive and menstrual function), inflammation of the ovaries and various appendages (oophoritis, adnexitis), the decline of the body's immune .
Often ovarian fibroma combined with ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids, so you can talk about common etiologic factors of these diseases.
Symptoms of ovarian fibroma
If the size of the fibroids to 3 cm, and ovary still fully operational, then over time symptoms of ovarian fibroma may be no. With the growth of education begin to be observed signs of Meigs syndrome (pleural effusion, anemia, ascites), manifested by pain, recurrent bloating, fatigue and general weakness, shortness of breath, tachycardia.
Ascites is a common symptom of ovarian cyst that arises in the allocation of education transudate in the peritoneal cavity. Hydrothorax ingress arises from ascites fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the pleural through slit diaphragm. It happens that the ovarian fibroma is accompanied by cachexia and polyserositis (mostly malignant degeneration of education). In many ways, the symptoms of fibroids, ovarian and severity of the disease depends on the degree of compression of adjacent organs with fluid.
Hemorrhage and necrosis in the tumor appear severe symptoms of peritoneal irritation.
As a rule, fibroma menstrual cycle is not disrupted. If ovarian fibroma combined with other diseases of female genitals, then the symptoms of fibroids and ovarian can join those symptoms that are common to other diseases.
Diagnosis of ovarian fibroma
Since fibroids over a long period of time may be asymptomatic, it is often discovered by chance during the examination or surgery for other diseases.
The diagnosis of ovarian fibroma put on the basis of examination of the gynecologist, clinical data, laboratory diagnosis (tumor markers CA-125 is NOT 4, complete blood count), as well as instrumental studies (pelvic CT, MRI, ultrasound). If you want to do as histological examination of the removed tumor tissue.
Treatment of ovarian fibroma
Typically, medication (conservative) treatment of ovarian fibroma is not performed. The tumor must be removed surgically. The nature of the operation depends on the size of the fibroids, the patient's age, condition of the uterus and the second ovary, various pathologies of internal organs.
If the tumor occurs in young women and has a small size, the advantage in the treatment of ovarian fibroma given laparoscopic tumor removal with preservation of menstrual and generative functions. Premenopausal women doctors recommend to carry out the complete removal of appendages. If the ovaries are amazed with the two sides, doctors are trying to save a part of them.
Forecast ovarian fibroma and disease prevention
Mostly favorable prognosis of ovarian fibroma, and the probability of malignancy of the tumor is not more than 1%. After the end of the reductive treatment a woman can plan pregnancy.
Specific ways to prevent this disease does not exist. As a precaution, it is recommended once a year to conduct a pelvic ultrasound and visit a gynecologist.