General characteristics of the disease
Ovarian cancer - a widespread and aggressive cancer. It surely takes the 5th place in the number of cases of cancer of various organs in women. The most common form of epithelial ovarian cancer. Much less malignant pathology develops within the body of the so-called germ cells.
Ovarian cancer is rarely diagnosed in women younger than 40 years. There is a relationship between the manifestation of symptoms of ovarian cancer and hormonal disorders. To belong to the risk nulliparous women, as well as patients with 5 or more pregnancies. An increased risk of ovarian cancer are women with cancer of the ovaries or breasts in family history. This 5-year continuous reception of birth control pills can reduce the chance of developing ovarian cancer by almost 50%.
Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer
Early onset of ovarian cancer is usually asymptomatic. Later, at the stage of the tumor and increase the spread of metastatic ovarian cancer a woman has abdominal pain, weakness. An additional symptom of ovarian cancer at this stage - weight loss. The size of the abdomen of the patient continuously increased. The initial increase in stomach stimulates the growth of the tumor and its spread to the abdominal adipose tissue - gland. At a late stage ovarian cancer symptoms and the cause of increasing the size of the stomach is ascites - fluid buildup behind the peritoneum.
Symptoms of ovarian cancer at an early stage often have systemic nature. The first symptoms of ovarian cancer are often taken by the patient for expression of the inflammatory process in the ovaries - adnexitis.
In the propagation of metastatic ovarian cancer or the tumor itself in the gut symptoms of ovarian cancer are indigestion, constipation, tenesmus, ileus. Metastatic ovarian cancer has spread to the bones, brain and other organs and systems are more extensive symptomatology: thinning of the bones, fractures, and various neurological disorders, etc.
Stages of Ovarian Cancer
Step ovarian cancer depends on the size of tumor, presence and localization of metastases of ovarian cancer in the body. Preoperative staging of ovarian cancer can only be preliminary. Accurate diagnosis is established during intraoperative revision.
On stage I ovarian cancer symptoms of the disease are the location of the tumor in a single ovary. In stage IB ovarian cancer tumor extends to the second paired organ. When ovarian cancer stage IC may be damaged ovary capsule.
For stage II characterized by the following symptoms: ovarian cancer has spread to the fallopian tubes or the uterus (IIA), to other organs of the pelvis (IIB). At the stage of ovarian cancer IIC malignant cells have in the abdominal fluid.
Metastatic ovarian cancer pelvis is characteristic for stage III disease. They can be located close and distant lymph nodes, as well as in various organs.
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer
Early diagnosis of the disease - the key to successful treatment of ovarian cancer. With primary complaints of the patient appeals usually to their gynecologist. After a pelvic examination on a chair, putting strokes, blood tests for cancer markers and ultrasound study of pelvic woman goes to a narrow specialist - cancers.
In diferentsionnoy diagnosis of ovarian cancer, he uses a more accurate method of using ultrasound sensors chrezbryushnyh. The standard definition of the extent of the metastasis of colon cancer are computed tomography, radiography, as well as gastro-and colonoscopy. Cytologic or histologic confirmation of type of ovarian cancer possible by laparoscopy, in which a fence tissues and peritoneal fluid is produced in the patient under general anesthesia through a small incision in the abdomen.
Treatment of ovarian cancer
Treatment of ovarian cancers are usually combined. It consists of a resected tumor ray irradiation and chemotherapy. Postoperative chemoradiation treatment - the usual standard in the treatment of ovarian cancer. They can significantly reduce the likelihood of tumor recurrence and metastasis of ovarian cancer.
When a significant distribution of metastatic ovarian cancer or large amounts of tumor oncologist may refer the patient to preoperative chemotherapy and radiation exposure. Surgery to remove tumors in this case is only assigned after the resectable tumor sizes.
Radical surgery depends on the stage of ovarian cancer. With small size of the tumor and the absence of metastasis of ovarian cancer can minimally invasive conserving surgery. In the late stages of ovarian cancer is usually performed abdominal surgery with complete removal of both ovaries, the gland and uterus, as well as all of metastatic foci.
Postoperative control after ovarian cancer treatment is carried out in the next 3-5 years with regular checkups cancers and blood tests for onco-marker CA-125.