Otitis is called otitis media, which is located behind the eardrum, and is a small cavity that separates the ear canal from the inner ear.
Otitis media is the most common cause of hearing loss (hearing loss). This disease affects people of all ages, but most otitis prone children, because of the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the Eustachian tube - cavity connecting the ear, nose and throat.
Causes of otitis
The two main causes of otitis media, is getting the infection and spread of the inflammation of the nose and throat to the middle ear and ear injuries.
In acute respiratory viral disease infection of the nasal mucous membrane, penetrates into the middle ear by the Eustachian (auditory) tube. Contributing factors in the development of otitis media are swelling of the nasal mucosa, which violates drain the middle ear cavity, and a strong blowing your nose at the same time both nostrils. Chronic diseases of upper respiratory tract (sinusitis, tonsillitis, etc.) can also cause otitis media, as ears, nose and throat are interconnected. Infection of other organs carried by the bloodstream, can also cause otitis media.
Injuries of the middle ear that cause otitis media, are penetration and without. Penetrating injuries occur in violation of the integrity of the eardrum by an object. Penetrating injuries occur when a sudden drop in atmospheric pressure, for example, in an airplane (aerotitis) or diving (mareotit).
Symptoms of otitis
There are acute and chronic otitis media. Acute otitis media, in turn, can be catarrhal (simple) or purulent. Symptoms otitis similar in all forms of the disease, but their intensity and some features depends on the species.
The main symptom of acute otitis media in a severe earache that patients describe as a twitch or shoot. The pain of acute otitis can be quite intense, increasing in the evening. One of the symptoms of otitis media is the so-called syringmus - the presence of the constant noise in the ear that is not associated with sounds from the outside, appears stuffy ear. Perhaps a slight hearing loss. Acute otitis media is often accompanied by a rise in temperature, general malaise.
Acute suppurative otitis media occurs more heavily. Symptoms of otitis media in the form of purulent same, but they appear sharper. It may appear dizziness. When purulent otitis in the middle ear cavity accumulates pus which breaks through the eardrum and pours out through the ear canal. Ironically, suppuration is favorable symptom of otitis media, as otherwise, the pus can break the other hand, and pour into the head space of the brain that is extremely negative complication of purulent otitis and life-threatening condition.
Symptoms of chronic otitis media in the form of similar, but less pronounced. As a rule, there are pain, hearing loss greater than in acute otitis. Syringmus symptom persists, there is a feeling of fullness or stuffiness in the ear, as in the presence of water. Chronic suppurative otitis appearing periodically suppuration of the external auditory canal. Develop significant hearing loss, the eardrum is perforated.
Children's disease otitis, especially a small child, can not be recognized for a long time, so how to explain the cause of pain can not be the baby. Otitis manifested in the child common symptoms of ill health: weeping, a rise in temperature, sleep disorders, refusal of food. Because the pain of otitis shooting, crying may begin abruptly when lumbago. In order to check whether the child has otitis media, press your finger on the tragus, or hand the entire ear, creating a pressure drop. The sharp pain reaction is confirmation of the presence of otitis media in children.
For children to acute otitis media, with the rapid current. Otitis a child needs urgent medical intervention as due to the structural features of the infection of the middle ear is easily extended to the meningeal membrane and into the cranial cavity, causing meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess. These complications are life-threatening.
Diagnosis of otitis
Diagnosis is based on characteristic symptoms of otitis, the patient's complaints, as well as conducting otoscopy (inspection auditory meatus lumen via forehead reflector). Further diagnostic tests are carried out to clarify the forms of the disease and to determine the presence of complications. Upon detection of the perforation of the tympanic membrane and the presence of pus, especially in chronic suppurative otitis media, take the contents for bacteriological analysis in the laboratory. Spend audiometry to determine hearing loss.
If you suspect a complication of otitis media, or middle ear tumor, conduct computer or magnetic resonance imaging of the skull.
Treatment of otitis
Treatment for otitis media should be immediate, because of the risk of serious complications: the spread of the disease in the area of the skull or the inner ear (labyrinthitis), which can threaten complete loss of hearing. Conservative treatment of otitis media, and consists of a common local treatment, but if necessary can be supplemented with surgery.
If the cause of otitis media was the respiratory infection that gets into the ear of the nasopharynx, the treatment of otitis media is required to carry out the complex treatment of the nasopharynx.
As a general treatment of otitis used antibacterial, anti-inflammatory agents, and agents that stimulate the immune system.
Local treatment of otitis depends on its shape.
In acute otitis media in the form prescribed bluetongue dry heat to the ear, in the form of compresses of woolen cloth, and be sure to restore the eustachian tube drainage, burying his nose vasoconstrictive drops (Galazolin, Nazivin, Naphthyzinum etc.). The ear also instilled drops antiinflammatory and analgesic (Sofradeks etc.) used for compress Tsitovich: cotton impregnated turunda 3% alcohol solution of boric acid and glycerol are introduced into the ear canal and allowed to stand for 3-4 hours, covering the auditory meatus cotton swab.
Acute suppurative otitis media requires the use of antibiotic therapy, as well as the evacuation of pus from the middle ear cavity. When purulent otitis in the acute stage it is strictly forbidden to warm ear, also do not need to use the ear drops, and turundy. Topical treatment of purulent otitis media in the form, namely, the middle ear lavage with antiseptic solutions, conducts ENT doctor or the patient after training.
The treatment of otitis media in the chronic form is also carrying out an anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy, with enhanced immune. Also, chronic otitis, and acute otitis media in the stage of acute symptoms subsided successfully treated by methods of physiotherapy (UHF, ultraviolet irradiation, laser therapy, magnetic therapy).
Surgical treatment of otitis media is most often used bypass surgery or paracentesis of the tympanic membrane - the cut of the tympanic membrane in order to create an outflow of pus.