Osteomyelitis of the jaw
Brief description of the disease
Osteomyelitis of the jaw is one of the most dangerous diseases of bone tissue. It affects all elements of the bone, accompanied by the development of inflammatory and infectious processes, has many serious complications. Suffice it to say that the jaw osteomyelitis often leads to generalization - a phenomenon in which suffers not only a certain region of the bone marrow, but also the entire skeletal system in general.
Lesions of bone known to doctors for a long time. The first mention of osteomyelitis of the jaw found in the writings of Avicenna, Galen, Hippocrates and Paracelsus, but the reasons for and methods of treatment of inflammation were found only in the late 19th century. It was then that the researchers concluded that the mandibular osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Today, among the infectious agents are added negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella and E. coli. In addition, the diagnosis osteomyelitis of the jaw, the treatment involves antiviral therapy, since more than 50% of reported cases of inflammation develops on the background of viral infections.
With regard to the pathways of bacteria and viruses into the body, then they tend to seep through a bad tooth, or through the blood as a result of injury to the jaw apparatus.
Types of osteomyelitis of the jaw
Odontogenic form of the disease is a consequence of neglected caries. That is why it is so important to the timely filling of canals. From cavity infection penetrates into the pulp, and then into the bone tissue directly through the root of the tooth. Also, microorganisms may spread through the lymphatic and blood vessels. In 70% of cases the patient develops odontogenic osteomyelitis of the mandible. The remainder of the lesions accounts for the upper jaw.
Hematogenous osteomyelitis of the jaw occurs when transferring infections from primary inflammatory focus on healthy tissue regions. The sources of infection are: tonsillitis and other chronic diseases, acute infections, inflammatory processes.
Acute osteomyelitis of the jaw - a consequence of the body's reaction to infection control. The patient feels the headache, malaise, fatigue, lack of appetite, sleep problems. Also, people have increased body temperature down to 38 degrees. When the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis of the jaw, treatment should begin as soon as possible, because the patient can not eat normally because of constant pain and discomfort when chewing. In addition, with the development of infection in humans is marked redness of the oral mucosa, lymph node enlargement and strong tooth mobility adjacent to the inflammatory focus. In some cases, acute osteomyelitis of the mandible leads to the defeat of the spleen and liver.
Subacute osteomyelitis of the jaw develops if lacking adequate treatment of the acute form. The patient appears fistulas and sequesters - dead skin. At the same time the typical symptoms of inflammation may blunt due to the outflow of fluid and pus, but it does not mean anything, because inflammation in the bone continues, and every day it becomes more and more dangerous.
Chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw - is prolonged, and at some time the patient has all the outward signs of a full recovery. Of course, this is only an appearance, because the inflammatory process continues to evolve and sooner or later leads to new aggravation, fistula formation, rejection of dead tissue and the formation of seizures.
Symptoms of jaw osteomyelitis
Summing up all the above, we can identify several key symptoms:
- signs of poisoning (headache, poor sleep, fatigue, fever);
- pain in the area of the infected tooth, which tends to be aggravated by palpation or tapped;
- tooth mobility in the field of infection;
- swelling of the mucous membranes;
- swollen lymph nodes.
Osteomyelitis of the jaw - the treatment of the disease
First and foremost, the healing process involves removing the infected tooth. Note that osteomyelitis of the mandible just refers to those cases when tooth extraction is absolutely necessary, otherwise the process of inflammation spread to healthy tissue and stop it will be much harder. Also, patients received early periosteotomiya - a procedure in which an incision of the periosteum to the smooth removal of fluid (the fluid that is produced during the development of infection and tissue death). Patients shown antibiotics, antiseptics bone cavity lavage and symptomatic therapy. In severe cases, doctors decide to surgical removal of sequesters.