Onychomycosis - a disease of the nail caused by a fungal infection. This pathology is very common, all suffering from onychomycosis 10-20% of the world population. Pathogens are dermatophytes often, less often - Trichophyton, Microsporum and athlete. It is often complicated by the activities of dermatophytes accompanying the development of yeast or moldy fungi that increase the negative manifestations of the disease and cause resistance to therapy.
Epidemiology and pathogenesis
Onychomycosis infection occurs during a visit to saunas, swimming pools and other public places. Infected onychomycosis can be touching the benches, grills, paths, carpets and any other things that come to the surface skin cells that contain pathogens. Note also that all of the pathogens that cause onychomycosis, not only thrive in wet conditions, but at the same time retain the ability to reproduce. The most dangerous from the point of view of transmission unpainted wooden surface. Often the spread of onychomycosis occurs within a family, where people have shared slippers, washcloths, towels, etc. Normally, the scales fall off during combing the affected skin.
Onychomycosis is triggered and some other factors. For example, the infection is more common in people with circulatory disorders of extremities, diabetes, HIV, immunodeficiency, as well as those patients who have previously completed a course of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive or antimicrobial therapy. Put simply, people exposed to the disease with a weakened immune system, so the treatment of onychomycosis must necessarily include strengthening therapy.
Types of onychomycosis
There are three types of onychomycosis: normotroficheskie, hypertrophic and atrophic.
- Normotroficheskie onychomycosis - nail keeps normal thickness and natural shine. The changes affect only the color plates, which changes the color of the appearance of stripes and spots in the lateral departments;
- Hypertrophic onychomycosis - treatment is difficult because of the growing subcutaneous hyperkeratosis, which leads to deformation and partial destruction of the nail, as well as pain while walking. The nails become dull, lose their luster and thicken;
- Atrophic type of onychomycosis - affected area of the nail plate becomes brownish-gray color, and eventually atrophies with simultaneous rejection of the bed.
Symptoms of onychomycosis
Symptoms of onychomycosis depends on the type of disease and the severity of the clinical course. However, we can identify a number of core symptoms that are common to all types of disease:
- The appearance of white or yellowish spots in the thickness of the nail;
- Inflammation okolonogtevogo roller;
- Degenerative changes of the nail plate;
- Atrophy of the nail and its separation from the bed.
Preliminary Diagnosis is a dermatologist based on visual inspection to clarify the diagnosis is carried out by means of microscopic examination of scrapings, in some cases it may be necessary bakposev. After the diagnosis of onychomycosis treatment must begin immediately, because the infection is developing quite rapidly and can spread to infect the rest of the nails.
Onychomycosis - Treatment of diseases
Treatment of onychomycosis in most cases begins with topical antifungal therapy - used ointments and creams containing antimycotics (antibiotics that can affect the fungal infection). If the nail plate contains dead areas, they should be removed. Removal of the nail plate is performed either surgically or by using special keratolytic agents, which are applied to the affected surface, and allow them to soften virtually painless rid of the nail.
Topical therapy may be sufficient at an early stage, in other cases also shown systemic treatment. Briefly the most common drugs used for this purpose:
- Griseofulvin - is the first antimycotics systemic action, which was used in the treatment of onychomycosis. It is effective in about 40% of cases, but a large number of side effects and a high percentage of recurrence significantly limit its use;
- Ketoconazole - taken once a day with meals. The course of treatment lasts for 8-12 months. The preparation heals in 50% of onychomycosis cases. Preliminary removal of affected records surgical method improves the efficiency of ketoconazole;
- Itraconazole - one of the most effective drugs. The course of treatment lasts for 7-10 days. Positive dynamics is observed in 80-85% of patients. Unlike other funds, itraconazole is effective enough, even without removing the damaged nail plate;
- Terbinafine - taken daily for 2-3 months. Full effect of the treatment is not immediately, but after 48-50 weeks after completion of the course. Terbinafine can achieve success even in stubborn cases, it can recover 80-90% of patients.
All of the above drugs have serious side effects, so the choice of the drug is carried out only by a physician based on the data of microbiological studies, and taking into account specific contraindications. If any signs of intolerance receiving the drug should be discontinued and pick another drug.
People's treatment of onychomycosis
Outset: if you are using exclusively national means, to achieve cure of onychomycosis is very difficult. Traditional methods best used as an adjunct to systemic therapy, as well as for the prevention of recurrence after completion of primary treatment. To this end, we offer you a few simple recipes.
- One method consists in treating the lesions of the nail 5% iodine solution, 2 times a day. This may be felt burning. If it is weak, all right - a means of producing the desired effect. If the pain is intense, the iodine treatment should be discontinued;
- When onychomycosis noted beneficial effects of propolis. It facilitates the discharge of the infected nail and promotes the rapid growth of healthy tissue. Propolis is applied to the affected area in the form of a 20% tincture or extract;
- A well-known means of combating a fungus on the nails is a poultice of tea fungus. For this purpose, take a piece of ripe tea fungus and the nail primatyvayut bandage, previously thoroughly washing their feet and a little steam. Such a compress is imposed on all night. In the morning you need to remove the poultice, wash your nails with warm water and remove dead skin areas, and then to treat the nail and the surrounding skin with an alcohol solution of iodine or any other antiseptic. Kombucha Treatment should continue for several weeks.