Nystagmus

Sometimes it happens that, talking with a man, you notice how he always "shifty eyes". One gets the feeling that  Nystagmus Eye - it is quite common oscillatory eye movements
 at least he was not interested in the topic of your conversation. But, unfortunately, people can behave in this manner due to the presence of a such disease as nystagmus, which translated from Greek means "nap."

Nystagmus Eye - it is quite common oscillatory movements of eyes in which a person can not focus his gaze on one object. In this disease, as a result, typically there is a decrease in visual acuity.

Causes of nystagmus

The reasons for the emergence of this disease are many:

  • Delayed development of the fetus during pregnancy;
  • The consequences of birth trauma;
  • Congenital or acquired visual impairment;
  • Various diseases of the eye: nearsightedness or farsightedness, strabismus, retinal degeneration, astigmatism, atrophy of the optic nerve, blurred optical media, and so forth.

In addition to all the above, nystagmus eye it can be caused by infectious or traumatic brain bridge, cerebellum, pituitary gland, the medulla oblongata, or labyrinth. Also, the development of nystagmus can cause stroke and multiple sclerosis.

Abuse of drugs or different drugs can trigger the development of nystagmus eye. Frequent stressful conditions also make some contribution to the development of the disease.

Symptoms and types of nystagmus

Nystagmus usually develops in the background of various problems related to the visual system or neurological disorders. There are various classifications of nystagmus.

Depending on the oscillatory movements of the eyes are distinguished:

  • Horizontal nystagmus. This is the most common type of pathology, when eye movement is directed from side to side;
  • Vertical nystagmus. Movement of eyeballs are directed up and down;
  • Diagonal nystagmus diagnosed in cases where the eye movements are diagonally;
  • Eye movements in a circle - rotational nystagmus.

The difference between the nature of the movements:

  • Evenly oscillating eye movement from one side to the other - shaped pendulum nystagmus;
  • The slow movement of the eyeballs towards a rapid return back - tolchkoobrazny nystagmus Eye;
  • Mixed.

Nystagmus is the eye:

  • Congenital. In this case, the most frequently observed tolchkoobrazny horizontal nystagmus. Usually pathology manifests itself in the second - third month of life a baby and unfortunately remains for life;
  • Acquisition. It is divided into the installation, vestibular and optokinetic.

Diagnostics

Involuntary  In congenital horizontal nystagmus child should be followed up by a neurologist and an ophthalmologist
 eye movement allow the doctor almost immediately diagnose nystagmus. But to identify its causes must be an in-depth medical examination of the patient.

At ophthalmic examination was carried out:

  • Definition of visual acuity;
  • Examination of the fundus and the retina;
  • An investigation of oculomotor apparatus and optic nerve.

After that, the patient is sent for consultation to the neurologist and the passage of electrophysiological studies:

  • MRI;
  • EEG;
  • Echo-EG.

Nystagmus: Treatment

The treatment process nystagmus long and difficult. Therapeutic treatment, first of all, start with the underlying disease that led to the development of this symptom. For example, the correction of visual impairment: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and so on. It can not only reduce the symptoms of nystagmus, but also enhances visual acuity. You can successfully use special computer programs: "Crosses", "zebra" and "Spider."

To the eye tissue and the retina receive the power they need, using vitamins and vasodilators.

In rare cases, resorting to surgical treatment of nystagmus. During surgery, the surgeon tightens and strengthens weakened muscles oculomotor apparatus, and vice versa, an incision, thus weakening the stronger.

In congenital horizontal nystagmus child should be followed up by a neurologist and an ophthalmologist to 15 years. As already mentioned, completely cure congenital nystagmus eye impossible. The main goal of therapy in this case is to prevent further progression of the disease and preservation of visual acuity.





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