Myxedema - a disease resulting from the reduction or termination of admission to blood thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism). Myxedema ill people at any age, including children, but most women exposed to it during the menopausal body's adjustment. This category of people suffering from this disease is five times more frequently than others.
Reasons for myxedema
Myxedema hypothyroidism develops that accompanies thyroid disease or congenital deficiency, respectively, the disease is primary or secondary.
Primary myxedema appears as a distinct disease in lesions of the thyroid gland. Thyroid function lost due to inflammation, tumors, autoimmune attack, trauma, including surgery, after the introduction of the radioactive iodine for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Sometimes the cause of hypothyroidism is myxedema due to a lack of iodine in the area of residence (goiter).
The cause of congenital hypothyroidism is the most infectious intoxication of a woman during pregnancy.
Secondary myxedema is one of the symptoms of brain pathology, namely the hypothalamo-pituitary system.
Symptoms of myxedema
Thyroid hormones affect the body as a whole, so myxedema - a disease characterized by multiple symptoms that are present on the part of all body systems. However, there are characteristic symptoms of myxedema, the combination of which is diagnostic of the disease. These characteristics include:
- Mucosal swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Slimy swelling differs from other types of edema that when pressing a finger on the skin is not deepening, as it happens in other types of edema. As a result of swelling of the face becomes puffy and maskoobraznym, coarse facial features, there are bags under the eyes;
- Brittle hair, thin, easy to fall out, brittle nails, layer. This symptom is called myxedema degenerative changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, arising due to mucous edema;
- The rough, husky voice that comes from the swelling of the vocal cords, because swelling of the tongue can become slurred speech, greased;
It follows from the above, the leading symptoms of myxedema are the result of the same mucosal edema.
Myxedema Other symptoms typical of all types of hypothyroidism: merzlyavost caused by circulatory failure, heart pain, fatigue, drowsiness, reduced the overall tone, lethargy and total impaired ability to concentrate, loss of appetite, and constipation. He suffers from musculoskeletal appear myalgia (muscle pain), muscle weakness, arthralgia (joint pain), arthritis. There polyserositis - combined inflammation of internal membranes (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura).
Myxedema in children manifests itself delayed mental and physical sexual development.
Myxedema in children can be congenital or early. The earlier disrupted the function of the thyroid gland, the more serious consequences is subject to a child's health. Congenital myxedema appears cretinism - severe disorders of all body systems, the most prominent of which is the growth retardation, deformity due to improper development of the musculoskeletal system, and a significant reduction in intelligence. At an early child development miksedeme suspended since the outbreak of the disease.
The diagnosis of myxedema put on the basis of research in the blood levels of thyroid hormones and pituitary hormones that regulate the flow of thyroid hormones in the blood. The thyroid gland is studied with the help of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration puncture of the thyroid gland and resulting research content.
Treatment for myxedema
Treatment of myxedema is to correct hormonal deficiency by receipt of thyroid hormones from the outside. Dosage is calculated individually preparation containing hormones, taken once a day.
If installed iodine deficiency, iodine and appointed a diet rich in iodine-containing products (seaweed, sea fish and other seafood, walnuts, iodised salt).
Lost thyroid function can not be restored, so the treatment of myxedema should be lifelong.
The disease is characterized by a slow increase of symptoms, so if you can time to diagnose and start adequate treatment myxedema, the disease is a benign, though, and have to be treated for life.
Regarding myxedema in childhood, the great importance is the earliest possible detection of the disease, which is difficult in practice. In congenital myxedema prognosis is poor, with an early possible to significantly improve the condition of the patient holding hormone replacement therapy, but to achieve the complete elimination of the symptoms of myxedema is usually not possible.
Separately should consider this disease as pretibial myxedema, or thyroid dermopathy. Unlike classic myxedema, pretibial myxedema occurs not at a reduced, while an excessive increase of the thyroid gland, the so-called thyrotoxicosis. The cause of hyperthyroidism is most often diffuse toxic goiter, more popularly it is known as Graves' disease.
Pretibial myxedema has local manifestations, in contrast to the usual myxedema manifested diffuse. Pretibial myxedema symptom is the appearance on the lower part of the front surface of the tibia modified skin. The skin in these areas becomes rough, thickens, becomes red or purple-red color, there is a growing actinic. On the affected areas of the skin hair follicles stand speakers, then the hair falls out. External symptoms of myxedema pretibial sometimes accompanied by severe itching sensation.
Treatment of myxedema pretibial conducted in conjunction with the correction of disorders of the thyroid gland, which became the cause of the disease. Local treatment myxedema when the disease is accompanied by itching, consists in applying ointments containing steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In most cases, patients with pretibial myxedema worried only a cosmetic defect, and then a special treat myxedema is not carried out, and treat the underlying disease.