General characteristics of the disease
Nearsightedness or myopia - is a widespread violation of refraction of the eye, which leads to poor visual acuity. Nearsighted people have difficulty seeing distant objects from them. This feature of often caused by an abnormal shape of the eyeball. When myopia it has an oval shape, so focusing the rays occurs not on the retina, and in front of her, and the image is blurry.
Elongation of the eyeball with myopia leads to an even more significant deterioration of vision due to macular degeneration. It gradually becomes thinner and may break or peel off as a result of injury or a fall.
Myopia - mainly a disease of the young generation. All over the world suffer from it at least 1 billion. People, the bulk of which pupils, students and other persons up to 30 years of age.
Forms degree views of myopia
Myopia in children can be congenital. In this case, the child is already born with a refractive error eye from an early age in need of correction of myopia.
The hereditary form of the disease manifests itself with 1 year to 18 years, half of the children whose parents suffer from myopia.
Development of acquired myopia in children 7-16 years old most often caused by the visual work in bad conditions (at the wrong light or landing during written work, as well as the excessive enthusiasm by computer). However, the disease, in this case also provoke hereditary factors - a predisposition to the weakness of ocular muscles and irregular shape of the eyeball.
According to the severity of the disease can be mild myopia (up to 3, 0 diopters.), Medium (up to 6, 0 diopters.) And strong (greater than 6, 0 diopters.).
Depending on the nature of the disease distinguish between stationary and progressive forms of myopia. The first form of myopia vision impaired patient, but worsen over time. Progressive myopia in children and adults, is characterized by a constant decrease in visual acuity up to several diopters per year.
Diagnosis of myopia
When myopia do not have any other obvious morphological changes in the structure of the organs of vision other than oval shape of the eyeball. The presence of myopia in children is suspected, observing the behavior of the child, one of the obvious symptoms of myopia - squinting through which the picture becomes more clear.
Ophthalmologist clarifies the diagnosis during the inspection of the table Sivtseva. The doctor at the same time can use corrective glasses. Physical and clinical refraction of the eye with myopia checked using ophthalmometer, refractometer and / or dioptrona. For better visibility of fundus patient previously held tsiploplegiya - mydriasis by atropine or skopalominom.
In order to establish the etiology of myopia applies ehooftalmograf. It allows you to calculate the sagittal axis of the eye (the distance from the center of the retina to the visual field). These results correlate with the age of the patient, and only on the basis of qualitative and quantitative assessment of a diagnosis of refraction and planned treatment of myopia.
Conservative treatment of myopia
The task of the conservative correction of myopia - without operations only with glasses, contact or hardware methods to change an abnormal refractive errors.
Points - the most traditional way of correcting nearsightedness. With precise selection of lenses can provide comfortable vision and eliminate the tension eyes. Spectacle correction - one of the most common methods of treatment of myopia in children. However, it also has its disadvantages: inconvenience during exercise, limited peripheral vision, impaired spatial perception and traumatic.
Contact correction of myopia using the lenses can be used in day or night mode. In the second case, a corrective lens during sleep changes the curvature of the cornea and provides the effect of normal vision at all the next day.
The lenses for the correction of myopia are comfortable and are able to significantly improve vision. However, they are contraindicated worn during infectious diseases. It is also possible eye injury or infection if not properly wearing or use of non-sterile lens.
The hardware used the treatment of myopia glasses massager, correcting computer programs, ultrasound, infrared, laser and magnetic therapy, vacuum massage and electrical stimulation. Course conservative correction of myopia is made individually, by an average of 10 days with alternate use of up to 5 different devices.
By the selection of spectacle lenses is very responsible approach, poor quality optics can lead to a deterioration of the symptoms of myopia.
Surgical treatment of myopia
Laser vision correction - the least dangerous type of surgery for nearsightedness. The procedure consists in changing the curvature of the cornea with a laser beam. Treatment takes place on an outpatient basis using local anesthesia. Minimally invasive laser surgery for nearsightedness lasts up to 60 seconds. Her life-long effect, and after the application of this technique to the patient no longer needs optical method for correcting vision - lenses or glasses.
Treatment of a laser counter with myopia in children, during pregnancy, lactation, cataract, glaucoma, as well as vigorous progression of the disease. In this case, we recommend holding scleroplasty. During her patient implanted donor sclera to prevent further stretching of the eyeball. And on the next stage in the treatment of myopia becomes laser vision correction.
Another type of surgical operations for myopia laser coagulation assigned patients during retinal degeneration. This technique does not improve vision, but to prevent further thinning, detachment or tearing of the retina.
Surgery for myopia with implantation into the eye of the contact lens is held with the contraindications of laser correction disease. Lens material compatible with eye tissues and has a lifetime warranty. The natural lens is preserved and sustained improvement in vision occurs after 5-6 hours after surgery.