Brief description of the problem
Everyone once in my life heard the word "myocardium", but that it is - know one. The myocardium is the heart muscle, which is constantly supplied to the blood. This ensures the distribution muscle of momentum between different parts of the heart and, as a consequence, it is vital to maintain the normal operation of the body. If for some reason comes clogged arteries, supply blood to the myocardium, such an important portion of the heart is left without oxygen. The "offline" muscle lives no more than 20-30 minutes, after which there is the most myocardial infarction - the irreversible destruction of muscle tissue and subsequent scarring. If you do not help this process leads to the death of a person, as is destroyed "road" on which cardiac impulses spread from department to department.
In recent years, a myocardial infarction is rapidly getting younger. If earlier the disease mainly affects the elderly, in the nowadays the destruction of the cardiovascular system are increasingly seen in young people under 30 years old. This means that for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, the treatment may be required by any of us, regardless of age or residence. Of course, there are triggers that can accelerate the appearance of a heart attack. It is them we will discuss in the next section of this article.
Why is there a myocardial infarction?
The main cause of the disease - atherosclerosis, which in varying degrees, is present in every human being. Initially, vasoconstriction does not cause much inconvenience to the patient, but eventually this process becomes pathological. Besides atherosclerosis, death of tissue can be caused by other reasons:
- age - mostly acute myocardial infarction occurs in people older than 50 years;
- Human sex - men get sick more often than women;
- Hereditary factors - higher risk of heart attack move, if they hurt someone in your family;
- high cholesterol, poor diet;
- smoking - one of the main reasons why there is a myocardial infarction (tissue death symptoms observed in 9 out of 10 smokers);
- sedentary lifestyle;
Each of the above reasons, significantly increases the risk of "dating" with a deadly disease, but together they make this "meeting" inevitable. Keep this in mind when the lights up another cigarette or eat a hamburger is absolutely useless, sitting in front of your favorite TV.
What happens when a myocardial infarction?
During his life on the walls of our blood vessels accumulate fatty deposits
. In some people, this process is slow, in others - much faster
. Upon reaching a critical mass, fat make up the so-called atherosclerotic plaque
. The walls of this education can explode at any time, which is the first sign of impending heart attack
. In place of the cracks immediately appears a blood clot
. It quickly grows in size and, eventually, forms a clot that can completely block the inner space of the vessel
. As a result, blood flow in the artery is stopped and a person develops a myocardial infarction (first aid during an attack involves administering vasodilators to restore normal blood supply)
. Note also that the larger the occluded vessel, the faster the process of cell death, as a major artery supplies oxygenated large areas of infarction
Myocardial infarction - symptoms and clinical picture
The main feature of allowing suspected life-threatening condition, is a pain in the retrosternal region. It does not pass even at rest and often given to neighboring parts of the body - shoulders, back, neck, arm, or jaw. Pain, in contrast to the same angina may occur without any reason. However, they are very strong and do not disappear after taking nitroglycerin. If you feel these symptoms, immediately call "ambulance." The earlier assisted after myocardial infarction, the greater the chance of avoiding serious complications and continue a normal, full life.
Note and other symptoms of the disease:
- shortness of breath;
- nausea, vomiting;
- abdominal discomfort;
- disruptions in the heart;
- loss of consciousness
It should be noted that a person may suffer a myocardial infarction, or even understand what happened to him. This situation is typical of silent forms of the disease, which is most often seen in patients suffering from diabetes.
Myocardial infarction - Treatment and Rehabilitation
To provide skilled care to patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the hospital. This is quite normal practice. If a patient diagnosed with myocardial infarction, first aid should be provided in the first hours after the attack. The main task of the doctors in this case - to dissolve the "fresh" blood clot, blood vessels expand and restore natural blood flow. To prevent new clots patient is administered drugs that slow blood clotting. Typically, in order to use such conventional aspirin. Applying it immediately after myocardial infarction, physicians can reduce the number of complications and serious consequences.
Very often, myocardial infarction is treated with beta-blockers - drugs that reduce tissue oxygen demand. Saving is very important work of the heart during an attack and because researchers are constantly working to find new technologies that would allow to solve the problem of oxygen supply without endangering the patient's life. Some of these developments, such as invasive or balloon angioplasty, is indeed very promising.
What should be done if a person has experienced a myocardial infarction. Rehabilitation in this case is not as important as the treatment itself, as for the damaged heart are dangerous, even the smallest load. Previously, patients with acute myocardial infarction did not rise from bed at least a few weeks. Modern technologies of treatment can significantly reduce the time, but in any case the person needs adapting to a new life. Ideal - to go on vacation in a famous resort, and on his return to consult with your doctor, who will appoint gymnastics, select the necessary drugs and give other recommendations relevant during the rehabilitation period.