Multiple myeloma, and multiple myeloma (which is also a generalized disease and plasmacytoma Rustitskogo Calera), refers to hematological malignancies - malignant tumors of blood cells. In multiple myeloma tumor in the process involves plasma cells, which are part of the immune system, namely B limotsity. Tumor development occurs in the bone marrow from the cancer cells spread throughout the body. Myeloma is uncommon, accounting for a little over 3% of all cancer pathology affects equally both women and men.
Causes of multiple myeloma
Authentically causes of multiple myeloma are not installed. As with other types of Leukemia, is set to ionizing radiation, pollution and contact with carcinogens, especially with oil and refinery intermediates. However, these factors are likely risk factors for myeloma education, rather than directly to its causes, as direct communication between them is not revealed.
The most important "damaging" factor in the case of multiple myeloma are age-related changes. The average age of myeloma patients is 70 years, cases of people under the age of 40 years recorded very rarely. To combat manifestations of age on the face is perfect non-surgical facelift smas.
Types of multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma varies according to the degree of tumor cell proliferation:
- Diffuse myeloma. Malignant cells disseminated throughout the body;
- Focal myeloma. Tumor foci are located in different organs: in the oral cavity, the respiratory tract, kidney, ovary, intestine, soft tissue. The tumors are usually multiple, rarely revealed isolated foci of myeloma. This intermediate stage, in the absence of treatment for myeloma is always turning into focal-diffuse form;
- Alopecia, diffuse myeloma, combines features of the first two types.
By the nature of the flow multiple myeloma can be
- Creeping or smoldering;
Myeloma is also differentiated by its cellular composition:
- Small cell;
There is also a classification of immunochemical myeloma, of interest mainly to specialists.
The symptoms of myeloma
For a long time the symptoms of myeloma can not be detected.
The first symptom of myeloma in most cases is a pain in the bones, with no bad reasons disposable using analgesics. Characteristically, the pain worse at night, sometimes so intense that myeloma patients can not sleep. Bones in multiple myeloma become brittle, resulting in frequent fractures them, sometimes quite insignificant occasion - a little person can stumble or tuck the leg and a fractured bone. Sometimes the fracture can even be spontaneous.
Since involved in the malignant process of plasma cells cease to perform the function for the production of antibodies, the body of myeloma patients susceptible to various infectious diseases. Frequent colds, pustular infection, poor zazhivlyaemost even small superficial wounds - one of the main symptoms of myeloma.
A characteristic symptom of myeloma is also renal failure. In multiple myeloma, kidney can not cope with the load, until the development of renal failure. Swelling, pain in the lower back, poor health - symptoms of myeloma caused nephropathy (kidney disease). The overall decline in the quality of life, fatigue, poor appetite, poor sleep, fatigue, irritability are also symptoms of this type of blood cancer.
Note that none of the symptoms of myeloma is not peculiar only to the disease.
Diagnosis of myeloma
Diagnosis of multiple myeloma includes a fairly large number of studies, the most important of which are:
- Blood and urine tests;
- Bone marrow aspiration biopsy followed;
- X-rays of the bones;
- Computer, or magnetic resonance imaging that can detect tumor foci in the tissue;
Myeloma Treatment depends on the stage of the disease and the degree of aggressiveness of the tumor process. In some cases, indolent multiple myeloma does not require special treatment, only a constant medical supervision. By the start of therapy in the event of activation of the disease. Active, and the more aggressive forms of myeloma, require immediate medical intervention.
The mainstay of treatment is chemotherapy myeloma - drug therapy using a combination of several cytostatics, several courses. Complement chemotherapy hormonal drugs that eliminate some side effects and make more effective cytostatics. An important place in the treatment of myeloma is immune therapy, which helps to prolong the period of remission, even in cases of persistent disease course. Applied also irradiation of tumor foci and some additional methods of influence on tumor cells of blood plasma (plasmapheresis, etc.).
If the treatment of myeloma with cytostatics does not lead to the desired result, that is, you can not achieve remission or at least suspend the development of tumors, have resorted to transplant bone marrow or blood stem cells. Transplantation of bone marrow and stem cells often helps in the most severe cases.
Surgical treatment of myeloma is used to remove a large tumor foci, to fix the brittle bones, squeezing to remove a tumor of nerve endings and great vessels. Thus, surgery is the only additional myeloma method.
The prognosis for myeloma
Forecast myeloma depends on how much active tumor process, and how the disease is diagnosed early and adequate treatment initiated myeloma.
When indolent myeloma prognosis is favorable in most cases.
In general, multiple myeloma relates to hematological malignancies with a high degree of malignancy.
Prediction myeloma based on health statistics is: myeloma patients who have received treatment in the first step to survive for 5 years after diagnosis in 50% of cases. Myeloma patients whose treatment was started on the second stage - in 40% of cases, and only 15% of myeloma patients diagnosed in the third stage survive for five years.
Respect for myeloma patients healthy lifestyle, avoiding harmful habits, the transition to proper nutrition, physical therapy exercises to strengthen the bone system and drinking regime in order to maintain the kidneys, allow multiple myeloma to improve the prognosis.