mitral valve prolapse
The mitral valve is represented by the front and rear doors connective tissue, having a form of flat leaves. Durable chords (threads) are attached to the wing of the papillary muscles and the papillary muscles are attached to the bottom of the left ventricle of the heart. The relaxation phase (diastole) leaflet bend down. The blood from the left atrium moves freely into the left ventricle. In systole the leaflets rise, closing the entrance to the left atrium.
Mitral valve prolapse - sagging wings (one or both) in the cavity of the atria. For the first time this phenomenon was described during an appearance by echocardiography (in the 60s). This pathology can be diagnosed at any age, but most often it detected in children older than seven years.
The pathogenesis and etiology of mitral valve prolapse
Depending on the origin of mitral valve prolapse is divided into idiopathic (primary) and secondary. Primary prolapse occurs when the connective tissue dysplasia. Connective tissue dysplasia leads to a change in the structure of papillary muscles and valve, disruption of distribution, is not attached properly, shortening or lengthening of the chords, the appearance of additional chords.
Secondary mitral valve prolapse usually accompanies and complicates the hereditary syndromes (congenital contracture arachnodactyly, elastic psevdoksantomu, Ehlers-Danlos-Chernogubova syndrome Marfina), as well as endocrine disorders, rheumatic diseases, heart diseases. The secondary valve prolapse may occur in acquired myxomatosis, inflammatory damage to the valve structures, valve-ventricular disproportion.
Mitral valve prolapse may develop as a result of dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, metabolic disorders and micronutrient deficiencies, particularly potassium and magnesium ions
The discrepancy or loose closure of the valve leaflets is accompanied by a systolic murmur of varying intensity. This auscultation recorded mezosistolicheskie clicks that occur when excessive tension chords.
Depending on the protrusion of the valve leaflets are the following degree of mitral valve prolapse:
- first degree (2 to 3 mm);
- second degree (3 to 6 mm);
- third degree (from 6 to 9 mm);
- fourth degree of mitral valve prolapse (more than 9 mm).
The course of the disease is usually benign, long-term, beneficial. Violation of the valve unit usually progresses slowly. In some patients a lifelong condition remains stable, and in other patients with the age of the pathology of the valve can be reduced or disappear.
Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse
Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse depend on the severity of autonomic shifts and connective tissue dysplasia. Patients with this disease often complain of fatigue, palpitations, dizziness, headaches, decreased physical performance, disruption of the heart, psycho-emotional lability, irritability, anxiety, chest pain, anxiety, hypochondriacal and depressive reaction.
For this disease is characterized by various manifestations of connective tissue dysplasia: weight loss, increased skin elasticity, hypermobility of joints, scoliosis, deformity of the chest, flat feet, myopia, wing blades. You can also find nephroptosis, sandalevidnuyu gap peculiar structure of the gallbladder and ears, nipples and eye giperterolizm. Often, when the valve prolapse observed changes in blood pressure and heart rate.
Diagnosis and treatment of mitral valve prolapse
To diagnose valve prolapse using instrumental and clinical methods. Contribute to the diagnosis of clinical history, complaints, the results of X-ray and ECG manifestations of connective tissue dysplasia. Diagnostic methods can detect this pathology and to differentiate it from the acquired or congenital mitral valve malformations of other options or dysfunction of the heart valve apparatus. According to the results of echocardiography can be identified correctly assess cardiac changes.
Tactics of treatment of mitral valve prolapse depend on the degree of prolapse valve leaflets and regurgitant volume and the nature of cardiovascular and psycho-emotional disorders. In this disease definitely need to pay attention to sufficient (duration) sleep. Question about sports usually considered by the attending physician after the evaluation indicators of physical readiness. Patients with severe prolapse without regurgitation can lead an active life without any restrictions.
Herbal medicine - an important component in the treatment of valve prolapse. This type of treatment is taking calming (sedative) drugs on the basis of motherwort, valerian, rosemary, hawthorn, St. John's wort, sage. Drug therapy is aimed at symptomatic treatment of the manifestations of the disease.
Closure of mitral valve (valvuloplasty) is carried out with severe regurgitation and heart failure. With the ineffectiveness of valvuloplasty replacing diseased valve artificial analogue.
Complications of mitral valve prolapse
Mitral valve insufficiency - a rather frequent complication of rheumatic heart disease. Incomplete closure of the valve leaflets and their anatomical defect contribute significantly to return blood to the atrium. The patient is worried about shortness of breath, weakness, cough. With the development of this complication shows the affected valve prosthesis.
Complications of mitral valve prolapse may occur in the form of arrhythmia and angina. These complications may be accompanied by a heart rhythm disorder, dizziness, fainting.