Microcephaly - a severe disease, occurring no more than once in 10,000 births. In congenital microcephaly in children is the formation of the small size of the skull, accompanied by an underdevelopment of the brain, mental retardation, a variety of mental and neurological disorders.
In the brain, when there are signs of microcephaly severe malformations: agenesis of the corpus callosum, macro- and mikrogirii, heterotopia, lisentsefalii. Gyri have flattened appearance tertiary grooves are completely absent. In most cases, patients with microcephaly remain underdeveloped: the brain stem, the pyramid of the medulla oblongata, thalamus, cerebellum, temporal and frontal lobes.
Microcephaly patients have a characteristic appearance with a disproportionate ratio between normal body size and small underdeveloped skull. Among the causes of mental retardation, a considerable percentage belongs to the microcephaly brain.
Types of microcephaly
Microcephaly is divided into primary and secondary.
Primary microcephaly is a genetic defect in development, which was formed in the early stages of pregnancy. This type is usually combined with other severe malformations of the brain - agenesis of the corpus callosum, Agira and other pathologies.
Secondary microcephaly fetus occurs in the later stages of pregnancy and is formed on the background of hypoxia, intoxication, mechanical trauma or undergoing intrauterine infection (tsitomegalovirsnogo encephalitis, rubella, toxoplasmosis). When secondary microcephaly type of brain tissue is often formed calcification, cystic cavities, foci of hemorrhage.
The list of harmful factors, the negative impact that could potentially lead to a prenatal origin microcephaly future newborn may be as much as long.
Among the possible causes of microcephaly refers pathogenic effects of radiation on the body of the future mother, medication during pregnancy, oligohydramnios during pregnancy, infectious diseases, genetic disorders, and so on. D.
As a rule, in most cases the parents of a sick child with a diagnosis of microcephaly is rarely possible to establish the specific cause of this disease is at the prenatal development of the baby.
Symptoms of microcephaly
The clinical picture of microcephaly as follows:
- Disproportionately developed facial and brain skull;
- Protruding eyebrows;
- Beveled narrow forehead;
- Protruding ears;
- Overgrown fontanelle in the first month of life, or close to the time of birth;
- Muscle hypotonia;
- The coordination of movements;
- Emotional limitations;
- Signs of mental retardation, mental retardation.
Unfortunately, the current treatment of microcephaly is mainly symptomatic patient support using of drugs, as well as comprehensive rehabilitation activities designed to maximize the adaptation and socialization of the child.
As drug therapy for the treatment of microcephaly used drugs that enhance metabolism in brain tissue - Nootropil (piracetam), cerebrolysin piriditol, encephabol, vitamin complexes, and so on. D.