Violation of the writing process, which manifests itself in a person's persistent recurring errors due unformed higher mental activity in the normal development of intelligence, called dysgraphia. Depending on what component of the mental functions underdeveloped, often accompanied by a violation of speech disorders.
Typically, dysgraphia and dyslexia, which is a violation of electoral capacity for mastering the skills of reading, manifested in children at the same time. In rare cases, these disorders occur separately.
If you find a child dysgraphia, exercises designed to develop fine motor skills, combined with the daily writing and rewriting the text dictation, can significantly speed up the process of correcting violations.
The classification is a violation aborted a particular mental function or operation of the writing process. On this basis, the following types of violations:
- Dysgraphia on the basis of violation of the linguistic analysis and synthesis;
- Articulating-acoustic and optical dysgraphia;
- Agrammaticheskuyu and acoustic dysgraphia;
The mechanism of formation of articulatory-acoustic dysgraphia is a mispronunciation of the child speech sounds, which he eventually reflected in the letter, as he wrote the words as they speak. This is possible in cases where a child or not formed phonetic representation or an abnormality auditory differentiation.
Thus, the kid with articulatory-acoustic dysgraphia records in writing his faulty pronunciation, skips, or replace letters. Many speech therapists point out that even after the correction of defects of speech, some wards continued to record the wrong word. This is due to aborted kinesthetic images of sounds during the internal pronunciation of the words in the child support does not occur on the correct articulation of sounds.
Articulatory-acoustic dysgraphia mainly affects children with polymorphic zvukoproiznoshenija violation, especially when rinolalii, sensory and sensorimotor dyslalia and dysarthria.
Acoustic dicg?% 8fiya is against the phonemic recognition. A child with the disorder replaces in writing letters for the sounds phonetically similar mixes whistling and hissing, voiced and voiceless letters.
The emergence of acoustic dysgraphia due to the inaccuracy of the differentiation of sounds to the ear of the child, while maintaining the normal pronunciation of words.
When dysgraphia, based on the violation of linguistic analysis and synthesis, the child writes the words, especially prepositions, together, skips vowels and consonant adds unnecessary letters, and wrote separately prefixes and roots of some of the other words in the sentence. Also, there is distortion of the structure zvukobukvennoy words, because of underdevelopment phonemic analysis.
Agrammaticheskaya dysgraphia arises against unformed lexical and grammatical structure of speech is shown in the letter to the morphological and morphosyntactic agrammatism level proposals, text, phrases and words.
Unformed visual-spatial functions leads to the development of optical dysgraphia. A child plays distorted letters on the letter - writing them in the mirror, not vice versa appends attributes the unnecessary elements, replaces and displaces a similar Graphic sign the letter. When the optical dysgraphia left-handed with an organic brain damage may occur letter left.
This type of disorder is divided into literal, when the child is difficult to reproduce isolated letters and verbal form, in which the reproduction is maintained isolated letters.
The disease can be caused by genetic factors and uneven development of the cerebral hemispheres. Registered many cases of dyslexia and dysgraphia develop in children whose families speak both languages.
A possible reason could be a violation of the weak processing of the visual information, dysgraphia often occurs in left-handers, which transitioned and they began to write with his right hand, as well as in children who went to school earlier than 6 years.
To prevent the development of disorders, it is necessary to stimulate the development of cognitive and mental activity of the child. We must look for ways to attract and retain the attention of the child, ensure that it is a sufficient number of visual and auditory impressions. For prevention dysgraphia can use various toys for very young children, or games for preschoolers.
Even in the period of pre-speech development of the child the parents must be installed with him emotional connection to subsequently be able to influence and guide his baby steps in the right direction, to develop his memory and to stimulate the development of his mental functions.
An important element in the prevention of dysgraphia is the full development of speech crumbs, because afterwards it will be the base on which to build and written language.
From an early age the child should fully develop, pay special attention to its psychomotor and intellectual activity. To correct and prevent dysgraphia, exercises designed to develop fine motor skills a child can make a significant contribution to the development of the mental functions of the brain that are responsible for speech and writing.
Dysgraphia can prevent exercise should be practiced every day, starting with the youngest child's age - it can be finger games and massages, the formation of the letters of grains or sticks, drawing, collecting puzzles, or cubes, which depicts the word.
So called dysgraphia violation letter in children due to aborted higher mental activity in the normal development of intelligence. And in order to prevent the occurrence of this disease, it is important to ensure the full development of a child from an early age.