Measles

Brief description of the disease

 Symptoms of measles ailing man

Measles - an acute viral disease characterized by a high level of sensitivity and severe symptoms (temperature up to 40, 5 degrees, inflammation of mucous membranes of the mouth and upper airways, general intoxication, rash on the body). The first mention of the disease dates back to antiquity, but a detailed description of the clinical symptoms of measles appeared only in the XVII century. In 1954, the infectious agent was isolated, as a live vaccine, which is administered to man, when done vaccination against measles was developed six years later - in 1960

The source of infection is always a sick man. Measles is transmitted by droplet infection, and vaccinated people may become infected at any age, as the specific immunity appears only after vaccination, or after the disease suffered by natural means.

What happens during the measles?

With mucus sick person, which is released during coughing and sneezing, the agent gets into the environment. We note here that the measles, symptoms of which often appear in childhood, has a different degree of danger depending on the time that has elapsed after exposure. It is believed that most people are contagious from the last 2 days of the incubation period before the 4th day of illness, when the rash appears. On day 5 of rash people are not dangerous to others. At birth children have colostral immunity, which is transmitted from the mother, of course, if she had been ill with measles earlier. Immunity This is valid for the first three months of life, after which he will still need vaccinations. Vaccination against measles is effective for 10 years, then the concentration of antibodies in the blood begins to decline gradually.

Gates for measles are the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, where the pathogen settles and begins to proliferate. After initial replication in the epithelial cells of measles virus into the blood and accumulated in various organs, causing a slight inflammatory infiltration. In the initial stages of measles in children and adults can be neutralized with the help of the administration of immunoglobulin, which must be made no later than 5 days after contact with an infected person.

If preventive measures are late, then begins the second wave of spread of pathogens in the body. This process is accompanied by consolidating existing symptoms of measles rash on the body. By day 5 after the rash appears the maximum concentration of virus in the blood drops sharply due to start production of neutralizing antibodies. From that moment on measles in adults and children is not nearly no danger to others.

Symptoms of measles

Measles symptoms develop after 9-11 days, after which patients have:

  • substantial increase in body temperature;
  • feeling of weakness;
  • malaise;
  • decreased appetite;
  • rough, "barking" cough;
  • redness of the conjunctiva.

After a few days in patients with measles rash found on the body. Usually, the first symptoms of measles are observed on the buccal mucosa and resemble whitish spots, towering above the surface of the shell. Then a rash moves to the outer skin. At the same time it enhanced the overall toxicity and the degree of damage of the upper respiratory tract. The elements are arranged randomly rash, tend to form complex shapes and rapid spread. Nevertheless, even in severe cases, patients have large areas of healthy skin.

The rash goes through 3-4 days after the formation. In its place there are small dark spots and defurfuration. Throughout measles in some patients the pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, conjunctivitis marked with the office of pus.

Treatment of measles

Tools specific treatment for measles do not apply. The latent period before the appearance of the first symptoms of measles, the patient can help the introduction of measles immunoglobulin. If measles among children has progressed to the stage of clinical manifestations, the immunoglobulin will be ineffective.

 Vaccination against measles child

In most cases, measles patients are treated at home. Hospitalization is indicated in patients with complicated forms of the disease, and children from private groups. The basic principles of treatment of measles include:

  • compliance with bed rest;
  • hygienic care for the sick;
  • drink plenty of liquids (soft drinks excluded);
  • vitamin;
  • expectorant drugs, if there is a dry cough, compulsive;
  • Instill a 20% solution of sodium sulfacyl if conjunctival complications.

The most reliable preventive measure is vaccination against measles. It is contraindicated in pregnant women, HIV-infected TB patients and leukemia. In all other cases, the vaccine is an excellent tool in the fight against measles. The first vaccination is carried out when the child is 1 year, the second - in 15-18 months.

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