General characteristics of the disease
Manic-depressive illness - is a complex mental illness that manifests itself in two polar in their psychopathic characteristics states: mania and depression. Usually, the patient is periodically attack only one of the affective states, and between them the patient is in a state intermission or interphase. Periods of acute manic-depressive psychosis often called phases or psychotic episodes. If rapid change in one of the polar states of other diseases becomes very heavy mixed form with the symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis both phases.
Manic-depressive psychosis, also called bipolar disorder. It softened the form at the severity is called "cyclotomy." The symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis, 3-4 times more often diagnosed in women. The prevalence of the disease is approximately 0, 5-0, 8% (an average of 7 patients with manic-depressive psychosis 1,000 people).
Causes of manic-depressive psychosis
The disease has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and usually transmitted from mother to child. There is also a theory that the prevalence of one of the two possible states of affective bipolar disorder, either mania or depression, caused by different genes. Differential diagnosis of genetic causes of bipolar disorder to date medicine is not available.
The cause of bipolar disorder in the physical layer are failures in the higher emotional center, located in the subcortical region. It is considered that violations of the processes of excitation and inhibition in the cerebral cortex leads to the development of clinical disease. The role of a wide variety of environmental factors - relationships, stress, etc. - Can only be considered as concomitant causes manic depression, but not the main factor provoking.
The symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis
The polar affective disease state characterized by a different set of features. The symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis, manic type are unreasonably elevated mood of the patient, his enhanced motor and speech activity. Patients with symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis of this type is much talk, joke, laugh, take up a lot of things, but because of the inability to focus on any of their attempt to unproductive activities.
The worsening of manic-depressive psychosis, the first type can last from several weeks to six months, and all this time the patient will be exposed to sudden surges of ideas and hobbies: new friendships, casual sex, extravagant behavior, alcohol abuse, waste, etc. Another important symptom of manic-depressive psychosis, this form - a complete lack of critical thinking in humans. He is unable to realistically assess their capabilities tend to extol their achievements, he does not consider himself ill and therefore can not agree to undergo treatment or take medication.
Depressive form of the disease manifests a different set of features. A patient with symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis second type apathetic, indifferent to everything. The faces of these patients continued a mournful expression, their speech is quiet and without emotion, movement slowed. Patients with symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis, this form often fall into a depressive stupor - a condition characterized by mental anesthesia, the complete loss of all the feelings and needs, up to the primary: eat, drink, go to the toilet, wash.
The symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis second type also include thoughts of suicide. The world seems uninteresting patient, aimless life, so he is trying to do away with it and at the same time shows a maximum of ingenuity, deceiving others. On the physical level symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis manifested a feeling of heaviness in the chest and breathing problems.
Diagnosis of manic-depressive psychosis
Differential diagnosis of manic-depressive psychosis is usually carried out with all the other types of mental disorders: various forms of neurosis, schizophrenia, psychosis, psychopathy, depression, etc. To eliminate the probability of organic brain damage as a result of injury, infection or intoxication in patients with suspected manic-depressive psychosis is directed to the X-rays, EEG, MRI of the brain.
Report this diagnosis can lead to the appointment of improper treatment and burdening forms of the disease as its consequence. Many people, unfortunately, did not receive appropriate treatment, as some symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis quite easily be confused with seasonal fluctuations in mood in humans.
Treatment of manic-depressive psychosis
Treatment for manic depression with mania involves receiving antipsychotic drugs on the basis of chlorpromazine or levomepromazina. These drugs cropped excitement and produce marked sedation. Additional components of the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis, manic type are the salts of lithium and galoperedol. Acceptance of these drugs takes place under strict medical supervision because of the likelihood of serious complications of therapy - neuroleptic syndrome. It manifests itself in movement disorders, tremor of the limbs and the overall stiffness of the muscles.
In the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis with predominant depressive states are actively used antidepressants. In order to achieve the most rapid therapeutic effect is usually given an intensive course of drugs with rapid increase doses of the drug, so the treatment of depression should not be delayed. Open depressive episode in the treatment of manic depressive psychosis is achieved by a sudden interruption of therapy at high doses, and the appointment of diuretics. For the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis protracted form of electroconvulsive therapy sessions are used in conjunction with reducing diets, medical starvation and sometimes sleep deprivation to several days.
To prevent psychotic episodes of mood stabilizers are appointed - the so-called mood stabilizers. Prolonged systemic acceptance of these drugs can significantly reduce the severity of symptoms of manic-depressive psychosis and possible delay the onset of the next phase of the disease.