Malabsorption in the intestines medicine called malabsorption syndrome. The disease is caused by changes in the digestive and transport functions of the small intestine that trigger metabolic disorders. The disease is characterized by a number of clinical manifestations, such as weight loss, diarrhea, and so multi-vitamin deficiency. D. Malabsorption can be congenital or acquired as a result of various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (liver cirrhosis, short bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis and other).
Malabsorption syndrome symptoms
Malabsorption has sufficiently specific symptoms, which can determine the presence of the disease in man. The most common of these are:
- Asthenovegetative syndrome;
- Various violations due to vitamin deficiency.
Patients suffering from malabsorption, observed irregularities in the bowel appear bloating, rumbling and pain in the abdomen. Pain observed, usually at the top and can give in the waist. The amount of feces in this disease is markedly increased, and it becomes a watery consistency, and sometimes shine. This phenomenon is called steatorrhea.
Manifestation asthenovegetative malabsorption syndrome in characterized by abnormalities in the nervous system of the sick person. Fatigue, a state of apathy and general weakness of the body are the main features of the syndrome, caused by a lack of the substances necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system.
Malabsorption syndrome manifested as pathological processes of the skin that are provoked by lack of vitamins and substances. Thus, these disorders can lead to eczema, dryness and pigment spots on the skin, dermatitis and hair loss, brittle nails and browning. In addition, the lack of a specific vitamin or substance may cause separate issues:
- Lack of vitamin K often results in bruising and red spots on the skin surface;
- Lack of vitamin E has a negative impact on the nervous system, causing a variety of neuropathy;
- Vitamin A deficiency provokes a disorder of twilight sight;
- Lack of vitamin D promotes muscle pain and osteoporosis;
- Reduced protein in patients leads to the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity;
- Zinc and copper deficiency causes a rash on the skin.
It is also one of the main symptoms of malabsorption can be called rapid weight loss. In addition, patients sometimes disturbed sexual functions, because this syndrome results in a reduction of libido and even impotence. Women often with malabsorption syndrome observed violation of the menstrual cycle as well as the occurrence of amenorrhea.
Speaking of such pathology as a malabsorption syndrome, it is necessary to allocate separately its form called glucose-galactose malabsorption. This is a rare genetic disorder that is inherited and is characterized by impaired absorption of sugars in the gastrointestinal tract. Progression of the disease is caused by a mutation in the gene responsible for synthesis of transport protein. That he moves the glucose and galactose through the small intestine.
Glucose-galactose malabsorption in children leads to disruption of tissue respiration, in connection with which there is a delay physical and mental development. This is because the red blood cells lose the ability to carry oxygen, and glucose concentration in blood of the child is reduced gradually galactose and metabolites accumulate.
Their concentration in the heart, brain, kidney, lens of the eye leads to damage of these organs. Malabsorption in children may induce cirrhosis if metabolite accumulates in the body or the brain.
Galactose malabsorption may occur as the accumulation of metabolites in the folds of the intestine and the kidney, which prevents entry of amino acids into the bloodstream. When the intestinal mucosa is irritated monosaccharides, the amount of liquid in it increases, hence impedes the absorption of nutrients. All these phenomena lead to the development of the characteristic symptom of galactose malabsorption, such as diarrhea.
Treatment of malabsorption
Treatment of malabsorption involves first eliminating the disease that caused the syndrome and concomitant dysbiosis. In addition, it is aimed at correcting the diet through diet, as well as the elimination of electrolyte abnormalities and motor changes in the digestive system, correction of abnormalities of protein metabolism, and vitamin deficiency.
Thus, treatment of malabsorption can be divided into three main types:
- Diet therapy;
- Medical treatment;
- The surgical method.
Diet therapy when malabsorption primarily involves eating foods high in protein. Fat in the diet of the sick person, especially if there is a symptom of the disease as steatorrhea, should be reduced by almost half. Often, for the treatment of malabsorption doctors recommend the use of a variety of special blends of vitamins and minerals.
Medicament method of treating a disease in turn comprises:
- Drugs corrective lack of vitamins and minerals;
- Anti-infective agents;
- Antacid therapy;
- Hormone therapy;
- Medicines choleretic effects;
- Antisecretory and antidiarrheal drugs;
- Pancreatic enzymes.
Surgery for malabsorption required in severe cases, and aims to eliminate the disease, which triggered the development of this syndrome in a patient.