Brief description of the disease
Lymphoma - a malignant disease of the lymphatic system of the person. Lymphoma is characterized by tumors in the lymphatic system or the internal organs.
Symptoms of Lymphoma
Typically, an early symptom of lymphoma is an increase in the size of lymph nodes in the armpits, groin or neck. Dimensions nodes not fade with time and does not respond to treatment with antibiotics. Lymph nodes do not cause pain. If you increase the internal organs (liver, spleen) can be observed in the abdomen distension, breathing problems, pain in the lower half of the back.
Also, the symptoms of lymphoma is a weakness, sweating, high fever, exposure to infectious diseases, digestive disorders, weight loss.
Types of Lymphoma
There are two groups of tumors: Hodgkin's lymphoma and nehodzhinskie.
Hodgkin's lymphoma is characterized by the presence of a special type of body cell, also known as cell-Reed Sternberg. Define these cells can be exploring the lymphoid tissue under a microscope. Treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma is different from the treatment of lymphomas nehodzhinskih, so proper diagnosis is important.
Hodgkin's lymphoma is most common in young age. So far not revealed the exact cause of the disease.
Risk factors for Hodgkin's lymphoma is a low immunity, infection with Epstein-Barr virus, which causes infectious mononucleosis.
The main symptom of Hodgkin's lymphoma is the enlarged lymph nodes in the groin, neck and armpits. In addition, a high fever, night sweats, cough, weight loss, itching, fatigue.
Nehodzhinskie lymphoma include a fairly large group of lymphomas. They have subtypes, which differ disease course and prognosis.
Indolent lymphomas are characterized by a long course and a favorable prognosis. These types of tumors do not require treatment, but require constant supervision by a doctor.
Aggressive lymphomas - the exact opposite of indolent. This type of cancer requires immediate treatment because of the rapid progression of symptoms and progression.
Extranodal lymphoma characterized by the development of the disease not to lymph nodes and internal organs: intestine, spleen, lung, stomach, brain.
30-40% of all lymphomas nehodzhinskih of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Large cell lymphoma often suffer from the elderly, but can get sick and children. The main symptom of large cell lymphoma is a rapid increase in the tumor. Diffuse large cell lymphoma refers to an aggressive forms of lymphoma, and requires immediate treatment.
The classification of lymphomas
The classification of lymphoma is fairly extensive and includes many types. All lymphomas can be divided depending on such factors:
- The grouping of cells, some lymphomas form clusters - groups of cells, others are scattered lymph node or organs of the body;
- The type of cells, causing the tumor;
- Type of protein on the surface of lymphoma cells;
- What body struck lymphoma.
There are four stages of lymphoma.
The first stage is characterized by lesions of the lymph nodes of the same area.
The second stage is characterized by lesions of two or more areas on one side of the diaphragm.
The third stage is characterized by lesions of lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.
The fourth stage is characterized by a generalization of the process.
Diagnosis of lymphoma
For the diagnosis of lymphoma using different methods. The main method of diagnosis of lymphoma is a biopsy. This method allows to determine the presence of tumor cells in the tissue.
Furthermore, using x-rays, CT or MRI, which can not only detect the presence of tumor, but also to determine the stage of lymphoma.
Also, a bone marrow examination is performed to determine whether lymphoma cells in bone.
Treatment of lymphoma depends on the stage, the forms and symptoms. Indolent form of lymphoma in the absence of symptoms and disease do not require treatment. But when the signs of growth are beginning treatment of lymphoma. If the tumor has a local location, use radiotherapy. In more severe course of the disease and the extensive use chemotherapy.
Treatment of aggressive lymphoma requires a quick response to the situation. The most effective treatment for this type of lymphoma is considered several courses of chemotherapy, and if it fails - a bone marrow transplant or stem cell. Among the drugs for the treatment of lymphoma, an aggressive form prescribed vincristine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab, hlorbutin and others. The main goal of treatment in aggressive form of lymphoma is to improve the well-being of the patient as a complete cure is unlikely.
Forecast Hodgkin lymphomas - good. Modern treatments lymphoma can achieve good results. Five year survival after treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma is 80 to 90%.
Forecast lymphomas nehodzhinskoy form when time begun treatment and the use of modern techniques and medication is about 55% for adults and 80% children.