Lymphadenitis - inflammation of lymph nodes, often accompanied by purulent process. The most common cause of lymphadenitis are streptococci and staphylococci, which fall into the lymph nodes in the lymphangitis. For the most part localized lymphadenitis in the armpit and groin. Most can be found lymphadenitis in children.
The disease is pyogenic microorganisms that from home purulent inflammation (panaritiums, cellulitis, etc.) Penetrate into the lymph nodes. This occurs by direct contact with the microorganisms, and through the blood or lymph.
Lymphadenitis may be purulent or purulent, and the duration of the current distinguish lymphadenitis acute or chronic. Chronic inflammatory process may spread to one lymph node or affect nearby. When purulent lymphadenitis characterized by the formation of extensive suppuration focus in the soft tissues - phlegmonous adenitis.
A characteristic feature of lymphadenitis in children and adults is a strong pain which forces the patient to keep the limb in position. The patient's body temperature rises and there is swelling. At a later stage lymphadenitis can develop floating and leukocytosis.
Lymphadenitis is an acute, chronic, specific and non-specific.
The main reason for non-specific lymphadenitis are staphylococci, streptococci, sometimes other pyogenic bacteria and tissue breakdown products of the primary foci of infection. The primary focus is festering wounds, carbuncles, boils, erysipelas, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers, osteomyelitis, etc.. Microbes and toxins enter the lymph nodes of contact, hematogenous and lymphatic pathways. Also bacteria can penetrate directly into the lymph node of injury. In this case, the primary disease lymphadenitis.
Contact microbes in the lymph nodes provokes inflammation, the result of which may be bloody, serous, fibrinous suppurative lymphadenitis. If left untreated lymphadenitis, the disease can lead to irreversible processes - necrosis, abscess formation, disintegration ihoroznym lymph nodes. At the initial stage of the disease is endothelial desquamation, increased sinus congestion and there is stagnant.
In ordinary inflammation lymphadenitis usually not beyond lymphatic capsule. If the disease has a destructive form, the inflammatory process may spread to the surrounding tissues.
Nonspecific lymphadenitis can be acute or chronic.
Acute nonspecific lymphadenitis begins with a headache, enlarged lymph nodes, their pain. Also, the symptoms of lymphadenitis include fever and malaise. If the inflammation is not pronounced, the general condition of patients suffering a little. There morbidity of lymph nodes, an increase in their size, induration. With the progression of the disease and the transition of the inflammatory process in the destructive form all the symptoms of lymphadenitis amplified. The pains are sharp, and the skin over the lymph nodes hyperemic.
With the development of phlegmonous adenitis general condition of patients worsens. Strong body temperature rises, sometimes up to critical levels, there is tachycardia, chills, severe weakness, headaches.
Acute nonspecific lymphadenitis is fraught with the development of complications such as thrombosis, the spread of purulent process in the cellular spaces and metastatic foci of infection (lymphatic fistulas, pyosepticemia).
Chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis in children and adults can occur from acute lymphadenitis or be a consequence of recurrent inflammatory diseases such as chronic tonsillitis, microtrauma, inflammatory processes in the teeth, etc. Generally, chronic lymphadenitis rarely becomes purulent form.
Symptoms of chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis include: increasing and seal lymph nodes that remain enlarged for a long time and maloboleznennymi. Sometimes there are complications such as swelling, lymphedema, elephantiasis, lymph circulation disorder.
The reasons are mostly specific lymphadenitis tuberculosis, syphilis, actinomycosis, plague and other diseases. For example, most often found in children tuberculous lymphadenitis during primary tuberculosis.
In the acute stages of a specific lymphadenitis observed a strong fever, swollen lymph nodes, the symptoms of intoxication, inflammatory and necrotic processes in the lymph nodes.
To diagnose the disease the doctor looks at the patient's general clinical symptoms and medical history information.
For the diagnosis of the patient is shown a needle biopsy of a lymph node. In severe cases, possible removal of lymph nodes for the purpose of histological examination.
The method of treatment of acute nonspecific lymphadenitis depends on the severity of the process. In the initial stages used primarily conservative treatment. For the affected organ is shown complete rest, UHF treatment and adequate treatment of the site of infection (abscess drainage, timely opening of abscesses and abscesses, opening purulent streaks). The patient is prescribed antibiotics. Purulent lymphadenitis primarily treated surgically: reveal phlegmonous adenitis, abscesses, pus is removed and the wound drain.
Treatment of chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis is aimed at eliminating the underlying disease, which provoked lymphadenitis.
Specific lymphadenitis treated according to the nature and extent of lymph node tuberculosis changes in the organs. If a process is active, the patient is prescribed first-line drugs: streptomycin, tubazid in conjunction with ethionamide, PAS, pyrazinamide, prothionamide, ethambutol. Treatment lymphadenitis specific long-term (up to six years). In marked purulent process the patient is prescribed antibiotics.
First of all it is necessary for the prevention of lymphadenitis try to avoid injuries, effectively deal with wound infections and efficiently and in a timely manner to treat purulent-inflammatory diseases.