General information about the disease
Although the history of the study of listeriosis has already more than 100 years, practitioners disease virtually unknown. Listeria is found everywhere, regardless of climatic conditions of the region and lifestyles.
In fairness it should be noted that listeriosis affects mainly animals. People rarely get sick. A small number of diagnoses is partly explained by the fact that the analysis on listeriosis can only be done in specially equipped laboratories as using standard pathogens and antibodies are not found.
Despite the relatively low percentage of incidence of listeriosis, an infection deadly. Fatal accidents are recorded in 40-50% of adults and 70-80% of children. The most severe consequences of causes listeriosis in pregnant women. The disease leads to premature delivery, miscarriage, neonatal mortality. Also at risk are the elderly and people with weakened immune systems. In recent years, listeriosis is increasingly found in drug addicts, who are constantly destroying their immune system. One particularly dangerous drug is fentanyl. In the case of drug-dependent disease, as a rule, it is the last link, which separates man from death.
What provoked listeriosis?
The causative agent of listeriosis refers to a group of Corynebacterium and is a small, movable rod, which does not form spores. It is often confused with the bacterium that causes diphtheria, so when suspected listeriosis, diagnosis must necessarily take into account the similarity of these two pathogens.
In most cases accumulate Listeria in food, to which they then penetrate into the human body. Bacterial rods retain the ability to grow at a temperature of 4-6 degrees C, so the storage of food in a refrigerator does not lead to any significant reduction of the weight of listeria. Not effective enough, and brine, which are used for canning vegetables, meat and dairy products. For this reason, the diagnosis of listeriosis symptoms often manifest themselves even after eating those foods that have been processed under strict technological requirements.
At high temperatures (over 62 degrees C) are killed Listeria, but only after 35-40 minutes. If the food is thoroughly cooked or roasted bad, the infection can cause pathogens isolated survivors in the epithelial cells and leukocytes. With special attention should be treated for cooking from raw cabbage salads, meat semi-soft cheeses and poultry.
Food way - the most common but not the only way of infection in the human body. The fact that Listeria often occurs in the lungs and erased forms, i.e., the patient may be unaware that the vehicle is fatally harmful microorganisms. In healthy people the causative agent of listeriosis penetrates the damaged skin or by inhalation of dust.
Listeriosis - symptoms and clinical picture
The first symptoms of listeriosis appear 2-3 weeks after infection. Patients feel:
- nausea and vomiting;
- stomach ache;
- temperature (38-39 degrees).
In addition, in patients with listeriosis often show signs of CNS involvement, manifested as encephalitis, meningitis, or combinations thereof. In such cases of listeriosis in pregnant women and children accompanied by ataxia, tremors, convulsions and occasionally stiff neck. Just for mothers disease is not dangerous, but it is an extremely negative effect on the development of the fetus, especially in the later stages of pregnancy. Even if the child does not die, he will almost certainly be found serious violations: purulent conjunctivitis, bacteremia, specific formation in the liver and spleen, papular rash. For this reason, the symptoms of listeriosis diagnosis of pregnant women should be carried out as thoroughly as possible, in order to refute or, on the contrary, confirm the presence of Listeria in the body.
Treatment of listeriosis
Since a correct diagnosis is usually made too late, the treatment of listeriosis is rarely successful. Primarily, this is due to lesions of the central nervous system, which greatly hampered access to medicines. The most effective have such antibiotics as ampicillin, gentamicin and Biseptol. If the diagnosis of listeriosis analysis shows the development of brain abscesses or meningoencephalitis, the patients require long-term treatment with drugs immunocorrecting: thymalin, imunofana, mielopida. Combined therapy of listeriosis also includes the use of dehydrating and symptomatic treatment, detoxification solutions, blood plasma.
Once again, we note: despite the improvement of medical technologies and new drugs, the treatment of listeriosis is almost entirely dependent on how much time the disease was discovered.
Preventing listeriosis means regular sanitary measures in the breeding farms and businesses that process products of animal origin. Pregnant women and others at risk should be suspended from work associated with the production of milk and meat products and animal care.