Legionnaires' disease - one of the clinical forms of legionellosis infectious disease characterized by acute
current, which causes various kinds of microorganisms of the genus Legionella.
Legionnaires' Disease (aka - Pontiac fever, Pittsburgh pneumonia, fever or Fort Bragg legionella infection) usually occurs with:
- General intoxication;
- High fever;
- Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome;
- Central nervous system, lungs, digestive system.
The incidence of Legionnaires' disease
The main habitat of pathogens (Legionella) in the nature of a soil and water. Along with natural and artificial sources of existing water systems, in which water circulates the optimum temperature for growth of bacteria. Legionella develops in liquids conditioners, refrigeration systems, in the warm waters that discharge power.
Despite the severity of the disease, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease epidemic is not dangerous and contaminated equipment is usually sanitize.
Legionellosis - an infectious disease, but its prevalence is determined not so much by the climatic conditions as anthropogenic factors. Overall incidence of Legionnaires' disease in the world is not high, but sporadic outbreaks celebrated annually in different countries.
It is noted that travelers often change their location, often prone to disease. This is due to a permanent change in resistance of the body and more frequent contact with the source of infection.
course of the disease
The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease enters the body through the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract by inhalation of water aerosols, which may include:
- Shower and tub;
- Ultrasonic spray of water;
- Air conditioners;
- Humidifiers systems ventilation.
At the same time the fact of transmission from human to human is not fixed.
Legionnaires' cases are associated with damage to the lungs. Pathological changes usually affect at least one lobe, extending to the terminal bronchioles and alveoli.
The disease is characterized by edema of interstitial tissue, and it resembles a drain for pneumonia.
Risk factors for Legionnaires' disease in severe community-acquired pneumonia are:
- The presence of concomitant diseases, namely diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and diseases which are accompanied by a course of systemic hormonal or intense immunosuppressive therapy;
- Warm season;
- Age older than 40 years;
- Alcohol abuse;
- Travel inside the country or abroad for 2-10 days before the onset of the disease (duration of the incubation period).
Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease
A short prodromal illness characterized by anorexia, fatigue and mild headaches. In some cases, another symptom of Legionnaires' disease can be transient diarrhea.
Then comes the dramatic deterioration of the rapid increase in body temperature (up to 40 ° C), which is accompanied by increased headache, chills, pain in muscles and joints, increasing adynamia.
Usually on the first day of illness dry cough and mucous and purulent sputum mucous component appears later. Hemoptysis is rarely celebrated. At this stage, the disease may be accompanied by intense stabbing pain in the chest, worse usually with a deep breath and coughing. It may also develop increasing acute respiratory failure that requires respiratory support.
Legionnaires' disease often affects the lungs in addition to other systems and organs, including the notes:
- Increasing the size of the liver;
- The lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, including vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea;
- Acute renal failure;
- Disorientation to time and place, disturbance of consciousness, dysarthria;
- Cerebellar disorders;
Feverish period with Legionnaires' disease usually lasts at least two weeks, and then at a favorable treatment of a slow recovery begins with a rather lengthy preservation of the phenomena of fatigue. In severe cases may lead to death due to increasing respiratory or multiple organ failure.