Cancer of the larynx
Laryngeal cancer is quite rare, about 2% of all malignant cancers. Unlike many of them, in most cases of cancer of the larynx can not establish a clear dependence on the carcinogenic factors, most important of which in this case is non-smoking. In second place among the precipitating factors - chronic alcoholism, - the third is harmful to the respiratory tract manufacturing (wood, paint work, etc.). The most susceptible to cancer of the larynx men 60-75 years. According to statistics, thirty years ago, women get cancer of the larynx is 20 times less, now the gap is narrowing, the doctors associated with the spread of smoking among women.
Laryngeal cancer does not develop at once, usually it is preceded by a long flowing precancerous. These include: dyskeratosis larynx (leukoplakia, leykokeratoz) pachydermia, papilloma, fibroma, cysts, scarring of the larynx as a result of an illness or injury, as well as chronic inflammation of the larynx, followed by smoking and frequent alcohol use.
In 97% of cases of cancer of the larynx develops nadskladochnom or partnership (which contains the vocal cords), larynx, and only 3% in podskladochnom (lower) section. Cancer of the upper sections of the larynx occurs more malignant, for it is characterized by rapid flow and the development of metastases.
The symptoms of laryngeal cancer
Symptoms of throat cancer, especially early, are not specific, that is peculiar to this disease, so the appearance of one or two of them should seek immediate medical attention. Like many other malignancies, for laryngeal cancer is characterized by asymptomatic start.
The earliest symptoms of laryngeal cancer include hoarseness, especially in the upper gastrointestinal tumors. Usually it does not cause much inconvenience, and the patient does not pay attention to changes in voice, or connects it with smoking. Long, persistent cough often written off for smoking, although it can be another symptom of cancer of the larynx.
There is a sensation of a foreign body in the throat, swallowing at first, then ever-present feeling that patients describe as a "lump in the throat." Gradually joined signs of intoxication decay products of the tumor: a general lack of energy, sleep disturbances, weight loss. With the proliferation of the malignant tumor, the symptoms of laryngeal cancer is increasing, hoarseness can pass in the complete loss of voice - Athos, is often a visible swelling of the neck, in the area of the vocal cords, there is pain in the form of persistent pain in the throat or ear, difficulty swallowing.
In the advanced stage of cancer of the larynx becomes labored breath appears purulent sputum, often mixed with blood, accompanied by a putrid odor from the mouth.
Stages of cancer of the larynx
- Carcinoma in situ, or carcinoma in situ. The tumor is within the mucosa in one of the larynx.
- The tumor is within the mucosa and submucosa, in a completely separated one larynx. Metastases no mobility larynx preserved (the tumor has not sprouted surrounding tissue).
- a) tumor invades surrounding tissue, but does not extend beyond a single department,
b) tumor spreads to several departments of the larynx. Defines a single mobile metastases to regional lymph nodes.
- a) the tumor has spread to most of the throat, larynx soldered to the adjacent tissues,
b) the tumor spread to other organs,
c) tumor with fixed regional lymph node metastases,
d) tumor with distant metastases.
Diagnosis of cancer of the larynx
For the diagnosis of cancer of the larynx is used laryngoscopy - endoscopic examination of the larynx. If you find signs of cancer of the larynx is carried out CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), which allows to determine the exact location of the tumor, its size and the presence or absence of metastases. The cellular composition of the tumor is determined by laryngeal cancer biopsy - taking a small piece of research on tumor tissue. A biopsy is performed during laryngoscopy.
Treatment of cancer of the larynx
For the treatment of cancer of the larynx is used drug and radiation therapy, and surgical removal of the tumor. The choice of method depends on the stage of cancer of the larynx. In the early stages - the first and second, it is the primary method of exposure.
With the spread of the combination treatment is carried out in the form of tumor resection followed by radiotherapy. The third and fourth stages of cancer of the larynx produce laryngectomy, ie total resection of the larynx, followed by irradiation. Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer of the larynx is used only as an additional method, aimed at combating metastasis, or in cases of inoperable cancer in the terminal phase to relieve the patient's condition.
Forecast laryngeal cancer
When time spent treating laryngeal cancer prognosis may be favorable, especially if treatment is started early in the disease, the first or second. Five-year survival rate after treatment in the first stage laryngeal cancer is about 94% when treatment was started in the second stage - 87%. Worsens the prognosis of laryngeal cancer tumor invasion into adjacent tissues and organs, and the presence of metastases, especially remote, since it is a sign of the generalization process.
Prevention of cancer of the larynx
The primary prevention of cancer of the larynx is to abandon bad habits, especially smoking. It was found that if the stop smoking, alcohol intake and do restorative procedures, even already appeared in the stage of cancer of the larynx in situ may be subject to regression. When working in hazardous environments should observe safety precautions and wear respirators. Given that the symptoms of cancer of the larynx can not be too severe, even with a fairly large tumors when they occur should not delay visit to the doctor.