Brief description of the disease
In the structure of cancer kidney cancer it ranks 10th, but it should be noted that in recent years there has been a threefold increase in the number of patients suffering from malignant tumors in the kidney. Men get sick more often than women, which is apparently due to the spread of smoking among the male population and more hazardous conditions. Especially worrying is the fact that the treatment of renal cancer is increasingly requires young people, although earlier the disease mainly affects the elderly.
The most common form of the disease - renal cell carcinoma. It accounts for over 40% of reported cases. Much rarer formation in the renal pelvis and ureter (20%). Sarcomas (mesenchymal education) is not more than 10% of reported cases.
Causes of the disease
Kidney cancer, the symptoms of which are currently found in people of any age, is caused by the following factors:
- disorders at the genetic level, in particular, the loss of the third segment of the chromosome;
- von Hippel Lindau syndrome and other genetic diseases;
- immunodeficiency states;
- uncontrolled intake of diuretic drugs, especially diuretics;
- unhealthy diet with a predominance of fatty, fried foods;
- ionizing radiation;
- smoking - is one of the main reasons that a person has kidney cancer. Metastases smokers are much more numerous, and indeed the disease is usually quite difficult. In general, smokers fall ill with kidney cancer by 60% more than those who do not feel the craving for nicotine, and does not communicate with smokers.
Stages of Kidney Cancer
The severity of the disease is determined by comparing healthy and diseased cells.
Stage I - tumor cells differ slightly from normal, healthy cells of the kidney. Cancer develops slowly, the prognosis is favorable.
Stage II - moderately differentiated - the most common form of cancer. Healthy and diseased cells have distinct differences, but the tumor is still growing slowly and treatable.
Stage III - the tumor extends beyond the kidney, striking nearby lymph nodes.
Stage IV - undifferentiated carcinoma of the kidney. Infected cells are significantly different from healthy, indicate an aggressive form of the disease. At stage IV kidney cancer metastasizes to adjacent organs (lungs, liver), and distant lymph nodes. Treatment of kidney cancer at this stage much more difficult or even impossible.
It should be noted that releasing the bud stage, physicians may classify not only the disease but also to determine the size of the tumor, its location, thereby increasing the survival rate of patients.
Kidney cancer - metastasis
In the later stages of tumor metastasis to the slope as the hematogenous and lymphogenous way. Most often pulmonary metastasis detected, then the bones, liver and brain. The defeat of the brain are most characteristic of stage IV.
Kidney Cancer - Symptoms
In the early stages of kidney cancer can occur completely asymptomatic. Identify the presence of tumors can be either by accident or in the presence of certain indirect signs. With the proliferation of tumor, symptoms are much more pronounced. Among the main ones include:
- the presence of blood in the urine;
- swelling in the lumbar region, palpation palpable;
- weakness, weight loss, lack of appetite;
- deterioration of general condition;
- a sharp rise in temperature for no apparent reason;
- an increase in blood pressure;
- pain in the kidneys.
Diagnosis of the disease
Kidney cancer metastasis which infiltrated neighboring organs and distant lymph nodes diagnosed quite easily. The situation is different in the early stages of the disease when the symptoms of kidney cancer is easily confused with symptoms of other diseases. A huge role in the formulation of a correct diagnosis play modern methods of medical imaging:
- X-ray diagnostics;
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- radionuclide scintigraphy.
In addition, patients received a biopsy, and urine.
Treatment of Kidney Cancer
Selection methods of treatment depends on the stage of renal cancer, tumor size, metastasis, and some other important factors. In most cases, physicians use surgery and surgery prescribed even metastasis, since it can significantly extend the life of the patient.
In the early stages of renal cancer, the symptoms of which are absent or occur only slightly, can be cured by conserving surgery, but even in this case, the prerequisite is to extract tumor thrombus removal and regional lymph nodes metastasis exclusive.
In the later stages it is advisable to conduct radical nephrectomy (removal of the kidney, including during the germination of the tumor to neighboring organs) or laparoscopic nephrectomy (allows for a more precise cut-off body and thereby reduces the length of the recovery period, but it requires special equipment and highly qualified personnel clinic ). Radiation therapy, hormone therapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of kidney cancer are not used because they show low efficiency. Increase survival time helps immunotherapy using interleukin-2, interferon alpha and 5-fluorouracil.
A few words about how a high probability of successfully treat kidney cancer. Forecast in this case depends on the tumor stage and degree of differentiation of cancer cells. If metastasis has affected the renal vein, the prognosis is poor. The same situation metastases in distant lymph nodes. In all other cases, the forecasts are more or less favorable.