Brief description of the disease
Keratitis - is an inflammatory disease of the cornea, which is accompanied by its haze and in some cases - severe damages horny substance and reduction of even blindness. Keratitis is triggered:
- eye injuries;
- viral and bacterial infections;
- certain chronic diseases (tuberculosis, syphilis);
- degenerative changes.
Note that keratitis eye is a serious health problem. Keratitis leading to corneal opacity, appearance of adhesions, permanent reduction of view, the development of panoftalmita and endophthalmitis. In addition, a characteristic feature of the disease is its long duration - up to several months in severe cases.
Types of keratitis
The most common form of the disease is superficial keratitis catarrhal symptoms that develop on the background of conjunctivitis, chronic dacryocystitis, blepharitis. Patients appear lacrimation, photophobia, sharp pain in the eyes. On the edge of the cornea is marked formation of single or drain infiltrates. If untreated, it grows vessels.
Viral keratitis - triggered by the herpes simplex virus or herpes zoster. Patients rash appears in the form of small bubbles in the area of the upper eyelids and forehead, nasal and eye stratum corneum. This keratitis - very painful. Often the disease spread to the iris, or the nerves that innervate the muscles of the eye leading to glaucoma and ocular muscle dysfunction. When the diagnosis of viral keratitis treatment is often ineffective. Moreover, patients may experience severe pain even after the disease is on the decline, and to save people from suffering can not, in particular, and potent analgesics.
Herpetic keratitis - often seen during acute viral infections such as influenza. Very often it is difficult to timely diagnosis of the disease, because people associate the discomfort and pain in the eyes of one of the manifestations of the infection occurred. Meanwhile, if time does not see a doctor, herpetic keratitis can go beyond the cornea and hit the rest of the eye. The first signs of this form are considered to be increased lacrimation and photophobia. Also, patients complain of swelling of the eyelids, inflammation of the blood vessels and the feeling of having a foreign body in the eye. Over time, the disease leads to the formation of ulcers on the surface of the corneal tissue and the formation of cataracts.
Fungal keratitis - revealed much less frequently than other forms, but it takes very hard and leads to serious complications. The main risk is that the causative agent penetrates into the anterior chamber of the eye, where it is almost impossible to work with standard drugs. Typically, fungal keratitis begins to develop after hitting foreign objects in the eye. At particular risk are people who have experienced severe eye disease, or suffering from exhaustion the body's defenses.
The symptoms of keratitis
The main symptoms of keratitis are characteristic of any form of the disease. First of all, it is worth noting the following symptoms of keratitis:
- excessive tearing;
- redness of the white of the eye vessels;
- changing the appearance of the cornea (if it gets corroded, covered with small tubercles);
- corneal clouding;
- the formation of ulcers on the surface of the stratum corneum.
If keratitis eye was caused as a result of injury to the corneal foreign bodies, the patients, the formation of a purulent bag. If the cause keratitis become severe infections, patients may suffer from further enlarged lymph nodes obsypaniya skin on the face and its swelling.
Treatment of keratitis
The main task of doctors - to remove corneal syndrome (using novocaine or Dimexidum) and block inflammation. The latter problem is solved by the appointment of micro-doses of corticosteroids, sulfonamides, amidopirina. Also, patients must be improved trophism eye, which is achieved by vitamins and dibasol.
If the patient is found running keratitis, treatment is carried out in a hospital. The main activities are aimed to delay the development of inflammation, strengthen the immune system and regeneration of the corneal tissue. During treatment with antiviral agents used: interferon tebrofenovaya or oxolinic ointment, idoxuridine solutions and deoxyribonuclease.
Good efficacy in the treatment of keratitis shown immunomodulators: polyacrylamide Poludanum, pirogenal as eye drops and injections. Assign sick and Mydriatics and accession secondary infections - antibiotics. Also, mandatory treatment of keratitis include the use of vitamins, nicotinic acid, dibasol, suprastin and Tavegilum.
To prevent the spread of inflammation to the affected areas of the epithelium is scraped and sear with ether, alcohol or iodine. With the same purpose held: electrocoagulation, neurotomy, keratoplasty, treatment rays Bucca, laser coagulation.
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